Since the Egyptians and Chinese invented paper, it has significantly transformed our lives. Paper is versatile since people have been using it differently. For instance, you can use paper to write, print, or even package different items.
Whether you work in an office, bank, or school, you probably use paper from time to time. So, how is paper made, and who invented it? These are some of the major questions we will give answers to in our article today. Enjoy!
History of paper
Egypt was the first country to invent paper in the 4th Century BC. They came up with a plant-based sheet to draw and write. This paper-like sheet was made from papyrus.
During the Han period, the Chinese invented a plant puree paper better than the paper-like sheet from Egypt. This plant puree conglomerate was somehow similar to what modern paper looks like. The Han dynasty took place in 100 CE.
Before the Chinese began using paper, writers used silk and bamboo pieces. Silk was initially used since it was convenient and light, while bamboo was readily available and convenient. They discovered that paper was better than both options since it was more practical and cheaper.
In the 8th Century BCE, the Chinese used hemp paper for padding, wrapping, and writing. The person that invented paper in China was called Cai Lun. He was also the brains behind the modern papermaking process. He used different materials like hemp waste rags, bast fibers, and mulberry to make paper.
By the third century, the use of paper in China became widespread. In the 6th century, they introduced toilet paper. The Chinese used paper to preserve the tea flavor during the Tang dynasty. The Chinese used paper between 618-907 CE to pay taxes and tribute. The Tang also established different color codes on paper use.
They reserved white for legal documents and yellow for government use. The Song Dynasty became the first government to introduce money printed on paper. When trade increased, they replaced the barter system by using paper money to pay for commodities.
By the 8th century, the use of paper had spread to the Muslim world. Rather than using papyrus, people used stone and wood inscriptions in the 8th century. In the 1100s, the invention of paper spread to more regions, including Europe. By 1300 CE, the Europeans developed papermaking molds using metallic wire.
By the 15th century, the use of paper had gained more popularity in Europe. During this period, they invented movable type printing. The 19th century marked the start of modern papermaking in Europe.
Why was paper invented in ancient china?
Before paper was invented, most calligraphers recorded text on papyrus or clay tablets. The invention of the early form of paper in China was accidental. Hemp clothes were left for too long after cleaning.
The owners took the water residue to come up with useful material. After this, Ancient China started making paper to help spread literature. They invented paper to use in writing and making books.
During the Han Dynasty, the Chinese invented paper to produce military and topographical maps. The Chinese started using paper as an alternative to bamboo and silk since it was lighter and more affordable. They also invented paper to use for packaging delicate or fragile items like medicine.
Since the Chinese produced tea during ancient times, they invented paper to package parcels of tea. The Chinese also used paper to make hats, sheets, paper screens, and money.
How was paper made in ancient china?
In Ancient China, paper was first made using the bark of a tree called mulberry. The Chinese that made paper during those times broke the bark fibers of this tree and pounded them into a sheet. The papermaking process changed when the Chinese found out that they could make quality paper by including old fishnets and rags to the pulp.
Since there was no automated machinery during this period, the Chinese made paper by hand. They used skilled crafts to make distinct paper. The Chinese experimented on paper making using different fibers during the Han period. They used fibers from tree barks, hemp, stems of grass, and vegetable matter to find the most affordable materials that could produce better quality paper.
In the 8th century, the Chinese started using rattan instead of hemp paper. Though rattan was used for a while, the Chinese replaced it with bamboo fiber which became a popular raw material for paper making. The Chinese made paper in different sizes and even experimented with various colors. They use special paper with unique patterns and colors for art and calligraphy.
Why paper is important
Paper has not lost its relevance over the years. People still find paper to be important since it is used in reading and writing. Though technology has led to the introduction of items like computers, we still rely on paper to print written content. Despite the introduction of online sources, paper is still used to make newspapers and help relay information to the public.
Apart from education and passing down information, paper is also important since it is used to make tissues that we use in our households. Most medical products like dressings and plasters are also made from paper.
Paper is also important since it revolutionized commerce and trade. Since people adopted paper money, international and local trade volume increased and flourished more than barter trade.
Modern industries also depend on the paper to package most items. Though devices such as mobile phones have made communication easy, paper is still important since it is used to make envelopes. Letter writing has not completely faded in some regions.
the origins of paper
Silk was first cultivated and woven in China. The best cocoons were selected by Chinese workers for the extraction of silk and subsequent weaving into silk fabrics; the remaining low-quality and diseased cocoons were floated to create silk floss. Some floss would remain on the bamboo mat after the floatation process was complete. The leftover floss on the bamboo mat would build up over many rounds of floatation, forming a thin fibre sheet that could be peeled off, dried, and then used as writing material. This floatation process by-product was rarely made and was known in ancient texts as “Hedi” or “fangxu.” This points to a connection between silk floss and the development of papermaking in ancient China.
what was ancient Chinese paper made of
Ancient Chinese paper was made from different materials throughout history. The earliest known paper was made from plant fibers, such as mulberry and hemp, which were mashed into a pulp and then spread out on a screen to dry.
Later on, during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE), a type of paper known as “jade paper” was developed, which was made from the bark of the mulberry tree. During the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE), a method of making paper using bamboo fibers was invented, which produced a stronger and more durable paper.
In addition to these materials, rice straw, old fishing nets, and even old rags were also used in the production of paper in ancient China. The exact materials used varied depending on the region, the time period, and the availability of resources.
how does paper come from trees?
Paper is made from wood pulp, which is derived from trees. Here is a general overview of the process of turning trees into paper:
Harvesting: Trees are harvested from managed forests or tree plantations.
Debarking: The bark is removed from the logs and sent to a facility for further processing (such as making mulch or biofuels).
Chipping: The logs are cut into small chips, which are then screened to remove any debris.
Pulping: The wood chips are placed into a large vat and mixed with water and chemicals. This process breaks down the wood fibers into a pulp.
Cleaning: The pulp is then cleaned and refined to remove any remaining impurities.
Bleaching: The pulp is bleached to achieve the desired level of whiteness.
Forming: The pulp is then poured onto a wire mesh screen to form a sheet of paper.
Pressing: The sheet is pressed to remove excess water.
Drying: The paper is dried using heat or air.
Finishing: The paper is cut to size and may undergo additional processing, such as coating or calendaring, to improve its properties.
what type of paper did ancient china have
Ancient China had several types of paper, some of which were quite different from modern paper. Here are a few examples:
Bamboo Paper: Bamboo paper is made from the pulp of bamboo, which is abundant in China. It is strong and durable, with a rough texture.
Mulberry Paper: Mulberry paper is made from the bark of the mulberry tree. It is soft and pliable, and was used for writing and painting.
Hemp Paper: Hemp paper is made from the fibers of the hemp plant. It is strong and durable, and was used for documents and currency.
Types of ancient paper
The main raw material for papermaking is often plant fiber, with bamboo and wood being the primary sources. Wood fibers are flexible and produce paper with strong ink absorption, while bamboo fibers are brittle and hard, resulting in paper with weaker ink absorption. Therefore, paper can be divided into two categories:
- Weak ink absorption paper: made from bamboo fibers, with a smooth surface that causes ink to float on the surface and not spread easily, resulting in bright colors. This category includes papers like Tang paper, mud gold paper, and foreign papers today.
- Chengxintang paper: the famous paper used by Li Houzhu, the last emperor of the Southern Tang dynasty, with the same name as the esteemed Tinguim ink. It is smooth and dense, as smooth as spring ice and as dense as a seal. It is the highest quality weak ink absorption paper, with the one just below it being called Cold Gold Jade.
- Shugui paper: according to legend, the ancient papermaking method developed by Cai Lun spread to western Sichuan, where it produced Shugui paper that became famous since the Tang dynasty, such as Xue Taogui and Xie Gonggui. It is said to have very pure water, resulting in excellent paper quality. It is named after its ten colors, also known as Shishe Xuetao, and named after pottery. However, this type of colored paper, though made according to ancient methods, tends to bleed and cannot be preserved for a long time, and is only used for entertainment.
- Scripture paper: also known as Jin Su Yu, is used for writing or printing Buddhist scriptures in temples, available in yellow and white. The commonly used mud gold and wax vat papers in the Ming and Qing dynasties are rare today, and even the lowest quality cold light vat paper is scarce. Nowadays, people generally use Japanese-made torinoko paper, but it is expensive and not durable, and not very practical.
- Strong absorbent paper: Made of wood fibers, it has strong ink absorption and a rough surface. Ink easily spreads when it falls on the paper, and it often sticks or smears while writing. The paper is glossy and delicate, with Xuan paper as the main type. Although it appeared relatively late, it has replaced traditional paper and become the most valuable writing paper.
- Xuan paper and imitated Xuan paper: The most expensive writing paper today is the Yupan Xuan paper. Made from jade plate, mulberry bark, short wood, rice straw, and sandalwood bark mixed with lime, it has the strongest ink absorption and the best texture. Xuan paper is named after Xuan Cheng, Anhui, but Xuan Cheng itself does not produce paper. The paper from the surrounding areas is also referred to as scattered land paper. Now let’s continue to talk about the precious Yupan Xuan paper. Not everyone can use this paper because it absorbs ink very quickly, making it difficult for slower writers to use. If you stop writing, the ink will seep out, forming a large ink ball. However, some people use this characteristic to write unique characters, such as Bao’s light ink calligraphy and Qi Baishi’s freehand brushwork. Because Xuan paper is too absorbent and difficult to write on, some people have improved it by compressing it or adding glue and alum to the pulp. The improved Xuan paper has slightly reduced ink absorption, making it easier to write on.
- Rough edge paper, Yuan Shu paper, cotton paper: Xuan paper is relatively expensive and is mainly used for learning Chinese characters. This type of paper was originally used for printing books, but because of its good quality, some people bought books and cut out pages to practice writing, hence the name “rough edge paper.” This paper is mainly made from bamboo, with a yellowish color and excellent texture, which is very different from the machine-made paper with a woven edge commonly used by students today. Yuan Shu paper is similar to streamer paper, but it is not well-known today.
when was papier mache invented?
Paper pulp, often made from torn or shredded paper, is mixed with a binder such as glue or paste, and then moulded and shaped into various forms in the paper-mâché technique. Paper mache’s precise birthplace is unknown, but it was likely either ancient China, Persia, or Egypt.
The Han Dynasty in China, which lasted from BC 202 to AD 220, is where papier-mâché first appeared in history. Masks, figurines, and other period ornaments were frequently crafted from papier-mâché. Since the paper pulp layers could be shaped and hardened into a lightweight but sturdy material, the process was also used to make helmets and armour.
It’s possible that papier-mâché emerged separately in different parts of the world. The ancient Egyptians, for instance, employed a comparable method to make cartonnage, a material used for the production of funerary masks and other objects intended for interment. Decorative boxes, trays, and bowls were commonly made out of papier-mâché in ancient Persia.
But the papier-mâché we use today was developed in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and it was first used there. Trays, boxes, figurines, and even stage props were just some of the things that were made from this material during this time period. During Louis XV’s rule in France, the technique was widely adopted for use in the creation of both theatrical backdrops and decorative art.
Furniture, picture frames, and even coffins were all made out of papier-mâché in the 19th century. It was also utilised in the manufacturing of mechanical components and automobile bodies. Many artists and craftspeople in the twentieth century continued to employ the papier-mâché technique to create sculptures, masks, and other objects.
what was the paper used for in ancient china
In ancient China, paper was a revolutionary product. The advancement of this system was instrumental in the dissemination of knowledge and culture in China and beyond, and it revolutionised the way in which information was recorded and transmitted.
The Western Han Dynasty is credited as being the earliest time that paper was used in China (206 BC – AD 9). Bark from mulberry trees was harvested, pounded into a pulp, and then pressed into thin sheets to make paper. These first papers had multiple purposes, including wrapping, packing, writing, and drawing.
Paper gradually supplanted more expensive materials like silk and bamboo as the preferred medium for written communication. Official documents, poetry, and literature were all written on paper by the time of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD). New materials, such as hemp and bamboo, and the use of sizing agents to increase paper quality contributed to the evolution of papermaking techniques during this time period.
Paper was used for many things in ancient China, not just writing. Fans, lanterns, and other ornamental items were created with it, and it was also used in the printing and binding of books. In fact, in AD 868, the Diamond Sutra was printed on paper in China using a block printing technique, making it the world’s first printed book.
Paper also had an important impact on the growth of Chinese calligraphy and painting. Different types of paper, such as rice paper, allowed for the development of new techniques and styles used by Chinese artists and calligraphers to create delicate and intricate works of art.
The spread of trade, diplomacy, education, and cultural understanding were all facilitated by the advent of paper, which had an impact far beyond China. Paper is still indispensable in the modern world, from packaging goods to printing books and newspapers.
The main uses of ancient paper were:
Wrapping objects: Initially, paper was likely used to wrap objects such as ancient books and scrolls.
Writing: Ancient paper was also used for writing characters, such as oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, seal script, and clerical script.
Painting: Ancient paper was also used for painting, such as the Tang Dynasty’s “Pictures of Flowers and Birds.”
Printing: Ancient paper was used for printing books and scrolls, such as the Tang Dynasty’s “Diamond Sutra.”
Currency: China was the first country in the world to invent and use paper money, with the Song Dynasty’s “jiaozi” being the earliest known paper currency.
Kites: Kites were initially called “paper kites,” and people added bamboo whistles to them. When the bamboo whistle was blown by the wind, it would make a sound like that of a zither, so people renamed them “kites.” Due to the emergence of the paper-making industry, kites were made from paper, which was fast to obtain, low-cost, and accessible to common people, making them a tool for entertainment.
Rituals: Ancient paper was also used to make Joss paper, paper figures, paper houses, etc., and was used in religious ceremonies and rituals.
Paper clothing/blankets: Paper can also be used for warmth. During the Tang and Song dynasties, the paper-making industry rapidly developed, and there were paper clothes and blankets on the market for keeping warm. This kind of paper was made from the tough bark fibers of the paper mulberry tree, and had the characteristics of toughness, durability, and warmth.
Window paper: Although ancient window paper was not thick, its fibers were long and tough, similar to modern handmade paper and cotton paper. Its main purpose was to protect privacy and block wind, and it could also serve as a sheer curtain or soft light curtain, allowing light to pass through but not transparency.
Paper cutting: Paper cutting, also known as “jianzhi,” is one of China’s oldest folk arts. Paper cutting is a hollow-out art form that provides a sense of transparency and artistic enjoyment. It is an art that uses paper as a material and scissors (or knives) as tools for creation.
Umbrellas: Oil-paper umbrellas are one of the ancient traditional items of the Han nationality, which has spread to other Asian countries such as Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, and Japan, and has developed local characteristics. In addition to being a daily item for shading from the sun and rain, oil-paper umbrellas are also an indispensable item in wedding customs and rituals.
Armor: The paper armor, which evolved from paper clothes, was an important military supply in the Ming Dynasty and was well preserved. “Wubei Zhi” records: “In rainy and humid weather, iron armor is prone to rust and corrosion and cannot be used. Japanese pirates and local bandits often use the magical fire guns, but the armor made of rattan and horns can also be used.” The anti-Japanese troops in the southeast coast of the Ming Dynasty used paper armor instead of iron armor in large quantities because paper armor was very suitable for the humid weather in the south and would not rust. It could also resist the damage of enemy fire guns, thus becoming a necessary supply for the southern soldiers of the Ming Dynasty.
how does paperwork in ancient china?
Tree bark, hemp, bamboo, and mulberry leaves were all used in the production of paper in ancient China. Papermaking in ancient China was a multi-step process that required a lot of time and effort.
After amassing the necessary supplies, the first step was to soak the raw materials in water for several days to soften them. After that, a pulp was created by beating or mashing the fibres, and that pulp was combined with water to make a slurry. A mould was used to evenly distribute the slurry across a flat surface, such as a wooden board or fine mesh screen, after it had been poured onto the surface.
The paper was laid out, and then pressed to remove excess water and create a smooth, flat surface. The paper was then removed from the mould and dried in the sunlight. After drying, the paper was sliced into sheets for further use.
Paper was used extensively for writing in ancient China. Silk or bamboo strips were used for writing before paper was invented, but they were both expensive and labor-intensive. The convenience of paper made it possible for people to more easily record their thoughts and ideas.
In ancient China, paper served many other functions besides writing. Lanterns, fans, and other ornamental items, along with printing and bookbinding, all benefited from its use. The mass production of books made possible by the development of paper contributed greatly to the dissemination of information and ideas.
All things considered, paper was crucial to the growth of ancient China’s culture and technology. Its creation ushered in a new era in the recording and transmission of data, and to this day it is indispensable.
The significance of papermaking
The process of making paper was a revolutionary development that changed the course of human history and culture. The development of paper greatly facilitated the spread of knowledge and ideas by simplifying the process of recording and transmitting data.
Making paper had a huge effect on spreading information to more people. Papyrus, parchment, and silk were all expensive and time-consuming alternatives to paper before its invention. Because of this, only the wealthy had access to education, and only the educated could afford to read and write. Having paper on which to write made it much easier for people to keep track of their ideas and thoughts. More people were able to participate in the advancement of science, literature, and the arts, leading to an explosion of knowledge and culture.
The advent of printing was another major change brought on by papermaking. Paper made printing more widely available, which in turn allowed for the mass production of books. Because of this, ideas and information were able to travel farther and faster than ever before. The publishing industry owes its existence to the development of printing, which in turn made it possible to disseminate knowledge and ideas to a wide audience.
There were substantial economic and environmental effects of papermaking in addition to the previously mentioned impacts on knowledge and culture. Paper’s accessibility facilitated the mass production of goods like currency, packaging, and road maps. Since transporting goods became less of a hassle, trade and commerce expanded. However, there were environmental costs associated with making paper, including tree loss and water contamination.
In conclusion, the invention of papermaking is a major turning point in human history and culture. Because of it, more people are able to get an education, more ideas are shared, and more information is recorded.
the purpose of papermaking
The purpose of papermaking is to create a material that can be used for a variety of purposes, such as writing, printing, packaging, and crafting. Paper is a versatile material that is made from fibers, such as wood pulp, cotton, or hemp, and can be produced in a wide range of thicknesses and qualities to suit different needs.
One of the primary purposes of papermaking is for writing and printing. Paper is a lightweight and durable material that can be easily transported and stored, making it ideal for books, newspapers, and other printed materials. The availability of paper made it possible to produce books and other printed materials on a large scale, which facilitated the spread of knowledge and ideas.
Another important purpose of papermaking is for packaging. Paper is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to plastic and other materials, and can be used to make a wide range of products, such as bags, boxes, and wrapping paper. The use of paper packaging helps to reduce waste and promote sustainability.
Papermaking also has artistic and decorative purposes. Paper can be used for crafting and creating a wide range of objects, such as origami, lanterns, and other decorative items. The versatility of paper makes it a popular material for artists and designers who want to create unique and innovative works of art.
In addition to its practical and decorative uses, papermaking has also had significant cultural and historical importance. The invention of paper in ancient China revolutionized the way people recorded and transmitted information, and led to an explosion of knowledge and culture. The availability of paper helped to democratize access to education and facilitated the spread of ideas and information across long distances.
Overall, the purpose of papermaking is to create a material that is versatile, durable, and accessible, and that can be used for a wide range of purposes, from practical applications such as writing and packaging, to artistic and decorative uses, and cultural and historical significance.
why is papermaking important?
Papermaking is an important human activity that has played a crucial role in the development of human civilization. The invention of paper has revolutionized the way we record, share, and preserve information, and has enabled us to communicate and exchange ideas across long distances and different cultures. Here are some of the reasons why papermaking is important:
Record keeping: Paper is an important medium for recording and preserving information. It has been used to create books, documents, maps, and other written materials for thousands of years. Without paper, it would be difficult to preserve our cultural heritage and historical knowledge.
Communication: Paper is also a crucial medium for communication. It has enabled us to share information and ideas across long distances and different cultures, and has facilitated the exchange of knowledge and culture.
Education: The availability of paper has helped to democratize access to education. It has made it possible to produce books and other educational materials on a large scale, making education more accessible to people around the world.
Packaging: Paper is a versatile and environmentally friendly material that can be used for packaging a wide range of products. It is an important alternative to plastic and other non-biodegradable materials, helping to reduce waste and promote sustainability.
Art and creativity: Papermaking has also played an important role in the development of art and creativity. Paper is a popular medium for artists, designers, and craftspeople, who use it to create a wide range of objects, from paintings and sculptures to origami and decorative items.
Economic development: The paper industry is a significant contributor to many national economies, providing jobs and generating revenue. Papermaking has helped to drive economic development and has played a role in the growth of many industries.
In summary, papermaking is important because it has enabled us to record, share, and preserve information, communicate across different cultures, democratize access to education, promote sustainability, foster creativity, and drive economic development.
where was paper traded on the silk road?
Beginning in China’s Han Dynasty, paper was traded along the Silk Road, a network of trade routes linking East and West (206 BCE-220 CE). The Silk Road got its name because silk was such a prized commodity in Western trade. Paper, an extremely valuable commodity in its own right, was just one of many items traded along the Silk Road.
China was the first country to mass-produce paper, and for a long time, the technique was a closely guarded secret. Central Asia and the Middle East were not the only regions to adopt papermaking by the 7th century. This led to paper’s rapid rise to prominence as a Silk Road commodity.
Samarkand was an important trading post along the Silk Road because it was a hub for paper production in Central Asia. Mulberry bark paper made in Samarkand was renowned throughout the Islamic world for its superior quality.
Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, was another major hub for paper production and trade along the Silk Road. The Abbasids were generous supporters of education, and they recognised the importance of paper for writing and printing. The city developed into a hub for the manufacturing and distribution of paper throughout the Islamic world and beyond.
Along the Silk Road, paper was also traded between Central Asia, India, and Tibet. Paper’s availability aided communication and played a significant role in the dissemination of knowledge and culture along the Silk Road.
when did paper come to Arab?
The invention of papermaking was introduced to the Arab world in the year 751 AD. During a battle in the central Asian town of Talas, the Tang army was defeated by Arab forces, and among the captured Tang soldiers were papermaking artisans. The Arab general in charge, named Salih, took these artisans to the city of Samarkand in Central Asia, where they taught the locals how to make paper and established the first paper mill in the Arab world, specializing in making paper from hemp. From then on, Samarkand became a center for paper production in the Arab world.
It is worth noting that the first paper mill in the Arab world was built with the help of Chinese workers, who also personally taught the Arab locals how to make paper. By the 10th century, the technology of papermaking had spread to Damascus in Syria, Cairo in Egypt, and Morocco. In the dissemination of papermaking technology, the contribution of the Arab people cannot be ignored.
when did paper come to India
In the seventh century A.D., Chinese Buddhist monks brought the art of papermaking to India. In the late sixth or early seventh century AD, during the reign of Huna king Mihirakula, paper was first used in India. Paper production, however, did not take off in India until after the Muslim conquest of the subcontinent in the 12th century.
The demand for paper increased while the country was under Muslim rule, prompting the construction of paper mills across the country. Sialkot, in modern-day Pakistan, was a major supplier of paper to the Mughal court in Delhi and one of the most important centres of paper production.
The Mughal emperors were enthusiastic supporters of the arts and literature, and the paper industry flourished during the 16th and 17th centuries. The versatility of paper meant it could be used for more than just writing and printing. Miniature painting, which is typically done on paper, also flourished under Mughal rule.
The paper industry in India is booming, and the country now ranks among the top producers of newsprint, writing paper, and packaging materials.
when did paper mache come to India
While some sources suggest that it was introduced to India during the Mughal era in the 16th century, others suggest that it was brought to India in the 14th century by the Persian mystic Mir Syed Ali Hamdani.
Mir Syed Ali Hamdani was a prominent figure in the Islamic world, and he is believed to have visited Kashmir in the 14th century. He brought along with him skilled craftsmen from Persia, and it is said that these craftsmen introduced the technique of paper mache to the region. The craft was initially used to create objects for religious purposes, such as the decoration of mosques and shrines.
Over time, paper mache became a popular craft in Kashmir, and artisans developed their own unique styles and designs. The craft was used to create a wide range of objects, including decorative items, toys, and even furniture. Today, Kashmiri paper mache is known for its intricate designs and delicate workmanship, and it is considered to be one of the finest examples of the craft in the world.
when did paper come to Europe
Arab traders brought papermaking technology from the Islamic world to Europe in the 12th century. In the 12th century, when the Moors ruled Spain, the first European paper mills were set up in the country.
The first paper mill in Italy was built in Fabriano in the 13th century after the Spanish introduced the papermaking process to the country. Water-powered mills were developed by Italian papermakers, and superior writing paper was also produced.
By the 14th century, paper mills had been set up all over Europe, including in France, Germany, England, and elsewhere. The growth of the printing industry and the spread of literacy increased the demand for paper.
Paper was an essential medium for Renaissance artists because it could be used for both drawing and painting. As a medium for recording and disseminating new discoveries and ideas, paper played an important role in the scientific revolution of the 17th century.
Paper is still used extensively in the printing, packaging, and publishing industries today. Even though computers have revolutionised many facets of modern life, paper is still widely used in many fields.
when was paper invented in ancient Egypt
Paper was not invented in ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians used a form of paper called papyrus, which was made from the pith of the papyrus plant. Papyrus had been used in Egypt since the 3rd millennium BC for a wide range of purposes, including writing, painting, and weaving.
To make papyrus, the stem of the plant was cut into thin strips and soaked in water to soften it. The strips were then layered on top of each other, with the fibers running in different directions, and pressed together to form a sheet. The sheet was then dried in the sun and polished with a smooth stone to create a smooth surface suitable for writing or drawing.
Papyrus was an important medium for recording information in ancient Egypt, and was used for everything from official documents to religious texts and works of literature. The Egyptian Book of the Dead, for example, was written on papyrus and contains a collection of spells and rituals intended to help the dead navigate the afterlife.
The use of papyrus eventually spread to other parts of the ancient world, including Greece and Rome, where it became an important writing material. While papyrus is no longer used for writing or other purposes, it remains an important historical artifact that provides valuable insights into the ancient world.
paper vs papyrus paper
Paper and papyrus paper are two different materials with different characteristics and properties.
Paper is a thin material made from pulp, which is typically derived from wood, rags, or other plant fibers. The pulp is mixed with water and then spread out on a flat surface to dry, forming a sheet of paper. The resulting paper is thin, lightweight, and flexible, and can be easily cut, folded, and written or printed on.
Papyrus paper, on the other hand, is made from the pith of the papyrus plant. The pith is sliced into thin strips and then soaked in water to soften it. The strips are then layered on top of each other, with the fibers running in different directions, and pressed together to form a sheet. The sheet is then dried and polished to create a smooth surface.
Papyrus paper is thicker and more brittle than modern paper, and has a slightly rough texture. It was commonly used in ancient Egypt for writing and drawing, and was also used for making baskets, sandals, and other items. While papyrus paper is no longer used for writing or other purposes, it remains an important historical artifact that provides valuable insights into the ancient world.
Overall, while both paper and papyrus paper are used for writing and drawing, they have different properties and characteristics that make them suited to different purposes.
paper vs Amat paper
Despite their similarities, paper and Amate paper serve distinct purposes.
Paper is a thin material created by pressing together fibres from various plant and animal sources to create pulp. A sheet of paper is made by spreading a mixture of pulp and water out flat to dry. The resulting paper is ultra-thin, ultra-lightweight, and ultra-flexible, making it ideal for writing, printing, and folding. Besides its obvious uses in writing, printing, drawing, and packaging, paper has many other applications.
In contrast, the amate tree, native to Mexico and Central and South America, provides the raw material for a paper known as amate paper. After removing the bark and soaking it in water, it becomes easier to work with. After the bark has been soaked in water, it is pounded with a wooden mallet until it is thin and flexible, much like paper. The resulting paper has a rustic feel and finds widespread application in the visual arts, bookbinding, and other handicrafts.
Because of its organic origin, Amate paper has a different feel and look than conventional paper. It’s popular among creative types who want their finished products to look and feel authentically handmade. Amate paper is not ideal for printing or handwriting with a pencil or pen, so it is not as popular as regular paper.
Paper and Amate paper are both useful in many contexts, but each has its own unique set of attributes and manufacturing process that determines where it is most effectively employed.
paper vs Bamboo paper
Paper and bamboo paper are two different types of paper with different properties and uses.
Regular paper is typically made from wood pulp, which is derived from trees. The pulp is mixed with water, and the resulting slurry is then spread out and dried to form sheets of paper. Paper is a thin, lightweight, and flexible material that can be easily cut, folded, and printed on. It is used for a wide range of purposes, including writing, printing, drawing, packaging, and more.
Bamboo paper, on the other hand, is made from bamboo fibers. Bamboo is a fast-growing plant that is considered more sustainable than trees, as it can be harvested and regrown in a short period. The process of making bamboo paper is similar to that of regular paper, but with the use of bamboo fibers instead of wood pulp. The resulting paper is stronger and more durable than regular paper, with a unique texture and appearance.
Compared to regular paper, bamboo paper is more sustainable and environmentally friendly, as bamboo grows much faster than trees and requires less water and pesticides to cultivate. It is also stronger and more durable, making it suitable for applications that require greater strength and resilience, such as packaging, construction, and furniture. However, bamboo paper is not as widely available as regular paper, and may be more expensive due to its specialized production process.
Overall, while both paper and bamboo paper are used for various purposes, they are different in terms of their raw materials, production processes, and properties, making them suited to different applications.
paper vs silk paper
Paper and silk paper are two different materials with distinct properties and uses.
Regular paper is typically made from wood pulp or other plant fibers, which are mixed with water and processed to form sheets of paper. Paper is a thin, flexible, and lightweight material that can be easily printed on, folded, and cut. It is widely used for a range of purposes, including writing, printing, drawing, packaging, and more.
Silk paper, on the other hand, is made from silk fibers, which are extracted from the cocoons of silkworms. The silk fibers are first processed to create a silk fabric, which is then further processed to create silk paper. Silk paper is thin, lightweight, and has a unique, delicate texture that is different from regular paper. It is often used for artistic purposes, such as calligraphy, painting, and bookbinding.
Compared to regular paper, silk paper is more delicate and expensive due to the specialized production process and the cost of silk fibers. It is not as widely available as regular paper and is typically used for high-end artistic and decorative applications.
Overall, while both paper and silk paper serve different purposes, they are different in terms of their raw materials, production processes, and properties. Regular paper is more widely used for everyday purposes, while silk paper is used for more specialized applications, particularly in the world of art and decoration.
paper vs Oracle bone
Paper and oracle bone are two important materials that have played significant roles in the history of China. While paper was invented in ancient China and became one of the most important materials in the world, oracle bone was used by ancient Chinese diviners to make predictions about the future.
Paper was invented in China around 105 AD during the Han dynasty by a court official named Cai Lun. Cai Lun was the first person to create paper by combining mulberry bark, hemp, and rags with water, then pressing and drying the mixture into thin sheets. Paper was initially used for writing, but soon found its way into other uses such as wrapping and packaging.
The invention of paper revolutionized the way people wrote and communicated. Prior to paper, writing materials in China consisted of bamboo strips, silk, and animal bones, which were expensive and cumbersome to use. Paper made writing more accessible to everyone, allowing literacy rates to soar and the spread of knowledge to flourish. This was especially important during the Tang dynasty (618-907 AD), a time when literature and the arts were flourishing.
Oracle bone, on the other hand, was used in ancient China as a tool for divination. Oracle bone was made from the scapulae (shoulder blades) of animals such as oxen and tortoises, which were believed to have divine powers. Diviners would inscribe questions on the bone, then heat it until it cracked. The pattern of the cracks was then interpreted as a sign from the gods, and the diviner would use this information to make predictions about the future.
Oracle bone was used during the Shang dynasty (1600-1046 BC), a time when ancestor worship and divination played important roles in Chinese culture. The use of oracle bone gradually declined during the Zhou dynasty (1046-256 BC), when the use of bronze vessels for divination became more popular.
In summary, while paper and oracle bone are both important materials in Chinese history, they served very different purposes. Paper was a revolutionary invention that changed the way people communicated, while oracle bone was used as a tool for divination in ancient China.
paper vs bamboo slip
Even before the invention of paper, bamboo slips played an important role in the development of Chinese literature and culture. Both are employed in the written word, but each has its own special qualities and benefits.
As early as the Warring States era, people in China were using bamboo slips as a form of writing material (475-221 BCE). Using a sharp knife, thin strips of bamboo were cut into rectangles, which were then polished and bound using string or silk. Brushes or sharp instruments like styluses were used to write the characters on the slips.
The long lifespan was a benefit of bamboo slips. They could be stored for extended periods of time without worrying about damage from moisture or insects. Official documents, legal contracts, and literary works frequently appeared on these as they were convenient to carry and handle.
There were, however, drawbacks to using bamboo slips. They were cumbersome and awkward to use because of their weight and size. They were also quite costly to manufacture and keep running, making them out of reach of the average person.
During the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) in China, paper was invented and quickly became a popular writing medium. Pulp obtained from the grinding of plant fibres like mulberry, hemp, or bamboo was spread out flat and allowed to dry to create paper. The finished paper was very manageable due to its low bulk and flexibility.
Paper’s low price was one of its many benefits. Its low production cost made it more widely available than bamboo slips. As a result, more people became literate and more ideas were shared.
The adaptability of paper was another perk. It was simple to snip, fold, and bind into anything from a scroll to a book to a letter. Because of this, it became a common means of expression in literature, art, and everyday conversation.
Paper, on the other hand, was not only more easily damaged than bamboo slips but also less water- and insect-resistant. Because of this, special care had to be taken when handling and storing it.
In conclusion, bamboo slips and paper both had significant impacts on the development of writing and literacy in China. Paper was more accessible and flexible, while bamboo slips were more long-lasting and high-status. Although paper has surpassed bamboo slips as the most common medium for written expression, the former leave a lasting impression in the form of artefacts and literary classics.
纸上谈兵（zhǐ shàng tán bīng）
This is an idiom that originates from a historical story. The allusion of the idiom can be traced back to the “Biography of Lian Po and Lin Xiangru” in “Records of the Grand Historian”.
Zhao Kuo was a famous general from the state of Zhao in the Warring States period. He learned about military tactics and warfare from a young age and had discussions with his father, Zhao She, who was also a renowned general. However, his father never praised him and believed that he was too simplistic in his approach to war.
In 260 BC, the states of Qin and Zhao fought a massive battle at Changping with a combined force of over a million soldiers. After an initial defeat, Zhao’s main general, Lian Po, ordered his soldiers to defend their fortifications and wait for an opportunity to counterattack, knowing that Zhao’s army was weaker than Qin’s. The two armies remained deadlocked for several months, and Zhao began to struggle to support its large army financially.
Zhao’s King, Xiaocheng, believed that Lian Po was too timid to take the offensive and ordered him to be replaced with Zhao Kuo, believing that he would be more aggressive. Qin spread rumors that they feared Zhao Kuo, which convinced Xiaocheng to appoint him as the new commander. Zhao Kuo, who had studied military tactics from books, ignored the actual situation and issued a new order for his army to charge Qin’s army and not to retreat under any circumstances.
When Qin’s general Wang He learned about Zhao Kuo’s appointment, he immediately led 3,000 soldiers to attack Zhao’s army, which numbered in the tens of thousands. Zhao Kuo’s army defeated Qin’s army easily and pursued them, leading to a significant victory. Zhao Kuo was thrilled and sent a messenger to report the news to the King of Zhao. He also sent a challenge to Wang He, who retreated when he received it.
However, Zhao Kuo did not realize that he had walked into a trap, and Qin’s army had already surrounded him. In his eagerness to defeat Qin, Zhao Kuo launched an attack in the early morning and encountered Qin’s army only five miles from his camp. The two armies clashed, and Zhao Kuo’s forces gained the upper hand, but he pursued Qin’s army too far, and when he returned to his camp, he found that it had been taken by Qin’s army. Zhao Kuo was captured and beheaded, and Zhao’s army suffered a significant defeat.
The idiom “纸上谈兵” is often used to describe someone who only talks about things but cannot solve practical problems. As the saying goes, “actions speak louder than words”. This requires thinking more when facing problems, being low-key, speaking less, and doing more. Although Zhao Kuang may be well-versed in the content of books, he lacks practical experience. Therefore, when faced with situations that require actual action, he immediately loses direction and becomes like a headless fly.
洛阳纸贵（Luòyáng zhǐ guì）
This is an idiom originating from a historical story, and the allusion of the idiom is first recorded in “The Book of Jin, Biography of Zuo Si”.
Left Si was a famous writer in the Western Jin Dynasty, and his family had been studying Confucianism for generations. As a child, Left Si was not outstanding and failed to master calligraphy or playing the qin despite trying. Additionally, he was unimpressive in appearance and short in stature, and he was not good at speaking either. Even his father said, “Left Si can’t compare with me when I was a child.” Upon hearing this, Left Si was very upset and began to study hard, even giving up playing outside and focusing solely on studying at home.
As Left Si grew up, his literary talent gradually emerged. His articles were ornate, and he spent a year writing a piece called “Qi Du Fu”. He also wanted to write a piece called “San Du Fu”. It so happened that when his family moved to the capital city of Luoyang, Left Si visited Zhang Zai, a famous writer at the time, to seek his advice. He collected information from all over and carefully planned his work, devoting all his energy to the creation of “San Du Fu”. During this time, his home was filled with materials, even in the corridors, courtyards, and even the bathroom, where he kept pens and paper. Whenever he thought of a good sentence, he would write it down immediately. After spending ten years on it, Left Si finally wrote the famous “San Du Fu”.
Once the article was written, Left Si gave it to the literary figure Zhang Hua for evaluation. Zhang Hua liked it more and more as he read it, and he showed it to the scholar Huangfu Mi. Huangfu Mi greatly appreciated it and personally wrote a preface for the article. “San Du Fu” quickly spread throughout Luoyang, and everyone who read it praised it. People vied to read and copy it, causing a shortage of paper in Luoyang and a rise in prices.
At that time, there was also a famous writer named Lu Ji who reportedly wanted to write “San Du Fu” as well. Upon hearing that Left Si was writing it, he even ridiculed him, saying, “Everyone wants to write ‘San Du Fu’. Let’s see what he can come up with! If he can’t write it well, I’ll use it to seal a jar of wine.” However, after reading Left Si’s “San Du Fu”, Lu Ji was impressed and felt that no matter how he wrote it, he could not surpass Left Si, so he gave up the idea of writing “San Du Fu”. With “San Du Fu”, Left Si became famous overnight, and no one dared to look down on him anymore.
Left Si admitted his mistakes and made corrections, which led to his later efforts; he persisted in writing, which led to the creation of the widely circulated “San Dou Fu”. People who succeed are not necessarily geniuses. Those who can recognize their own shortcomings in time and make corrections, and who do not give up easily, can also achieve success with persistent efforts.
纸短情长（zhǐ duǎn qíng cháng）
This idiom means that a short letter cannot express deep feelings, and is used to describe profound emotions. It comes from the book “Jade Pear Spirit”.
From Chapter 8 of “Jade Pear Spirit” by Xu Zhenshan: “Words fail me, but I hope you won’t forget. Two kinds of fragrant orchids, to be exchanged as a token of love. These flowers are not common, one is called ‘Little Lotus’, the other ‘Top-Rank’, and to receive them while ill is enough to soothe the solitude. As my spirit soars over the Linying River, my writing falls short of my feelings. The paper is short, but my emotions are long. Please treasure them.”
The Chinese have been using paper for more than two millennia. They were among the first people to invent paper. Since the invention of paper, its use has spread worldwide. Different techniques are now used to make quality paper in various regions. Paper is preferred over other materials since it is flexible, lightweight, and durable. Over the years, paper has evolved in terms of how it is manufactured, used, and even in its appearance.
The invention of paper also had a significant impact on the economy and society of ancient China. Papermaking became a major industry, providing employment and income for many people. The demand for paper led to the establishment of paper mills and trading routes, creating a network of commerce and cultural exchange.