Who Founded The Song Dynasty?-Taizu Of Song
Who was emperor Taizu, what dynasty did he rule in, and what was he known for?
Who Was Zhao Kuangyin?
Emperor Taizu, known formerly as Zhao Kuangyin of the Grand Ancestorlived and ruled between 960 and 976CE. He was the founder of the Song or the Sung Dynasty that ruled China between 960 and 1279CE.
Taizu would then settle on a territory that was smaller than the rest, but one that was much more unified and also quite prosperous in ancient China. Emperor Taizu was born in 1927 and died in 976 at the age of 49.
Taizu started the process for the reunification of China, a project that was later on completed to a large extent by his successor and younger brother, the Taizong Emperor. Emperor Taizu was a military officer’s Zhao Hongyin second son, and at the time of Zhao Kuangyin’s birth, China was in a lot of chaos, with the famously great Tang Dynasty largely fragmented by the rebellions and coming to its end in the year 907. Over several decades after the fall of the Tang Dynasty, China would be referred to as the Five Dynasties, which ruled in the Wutai period. At the time, the successive regimes that were part Chinese rose to prominence before falling and leaving behind a rather devastated North China. The South, which was more prosperous, would be divided into several factions, among them an independent area that would, later on, be known as the Shiguo or the Ten Kingdoms.
Now, the boy’s ancestors from the three previous generations had won as military leaders, and Zhao Kuangyin’s father was sworn in and reached the highest command before dying in 956. Zhao Kuangyin took over the reign with great foresight and wisdom, as well as great influence from his mother. His mother’s wisdom was quite influential and was felt even after he died in 961.
Zhao Kuangyin Accomplishments
Zhao Kuangyin or Emperor Taizu is known for rising above all other military rulers during China’s most turbulent times and running one of the most successful reigns for the Chinese people during the reign of the Song Dynasty.
One of the things that stands out from this ruler born in China’s Henan province is the fact that he was one of the finest archers and horsemen. And at the fine age of 20, commander Zhao was a commander who fought for the later Zhou Dynasty between 951 and 960CE. During the wars, he extended control over Southern China, and Zhao later turned out into one of the finest commanders of the Zhou Army. The Zhou’s ruler died at about the same time, and his son took up the title despite being a child. In 960CE, Zhou’s army endorsed Zhao as their new leader, dressing him in the yellow robes of the imperial leader while confidently proclaiming him as the ruler of all of China.
- Change in leadership
After taking the reign as a Taizu, which means the Grand Progenitor, emperor Taizu’s first priority was ensuring that his position was the most powerful one in China, and to make this possible, Taizu went on to introduce the rotation system of government for the top generals. This system gave most of the former commanders minor positions in his new regime; while reducing the powers of the commanders who ran things in the 15 administrative regions that he ruled.
Taizu also made sure that there was no military leader that would be powerful enough to usurp him as emperor. And to check the powers of the army, some of the generals were encouraged to retire, and they would enjoy handsome pensions as incentives. Others would get gifts to symbolize their loyalty, while the rest would be replaced by civilian officials when they died or retired.
Emperor Taizu also introduced the centralized form of government with a court located in Kaifeng. The other changes he made included increasing the powers held by the civil service.
However, the created much less of a militaristic regime by focusing more on a more efficient administration system which was popular throughout much of the 10th Century CE.
- Foreign Policy
Emperor Taizu also changed China’s foreign policy to a large extent. However, he had his hands full when he defended the northern borders from the Khitan Liao Dynasty between 907 and 1125CE and was in control of the Great Wall of China. They won the battle, and Taizu would then consolidate his grip over Southern and Central China.
Emperor Taizu’s rule also saw the rise in and changes of the political and also intellectual climate, as neo-Confucianism was introduced. The change saw questioning of the functions of the imperial authority, even as they sought to understand what the previous administration for the Tang Dynasty failed at in their final years, something that revived Confucian beliefs and gave birth to Neo-Confucianism. This ideal emphasizes self-improvement with a focus on rational metaphysical frameworks.
Emperor Taizu’s reign also saw a growth in the arts and cultural aspects of the Chinese people. Many books were printed, and a library was even established in Kaifeng with thousands of volumes of history and literature collected. Taizu also ordered large collections of high-quality and important silk scroll paintings, as well as calligraphy specimens and valuable art.
- Reforms to the examination system
The emperor also created policies that would transform the examination system, resulting in the creation of a bureaucratic system that favored leadership through the abilities demonstrated rather than through favors or birth.
- Economic growth
There also was a rather significant improvement in China’s economy during his reign, and this led to the biggest success levels of the country. The internal reforms, stability, and peace all facilitated a safe environment for the pioneering of some of the biggest economic techniques, as well as scientific advancements.
How Did Zhao Kuangyin Die
Taizu died in the year 976CE, and he was succeeded by his younger brother, emperor Taizong. Together, they ran a rather stable ruling system through his 4-decade rule of the Song dynasty, which ensured the best part to a unified China. Thanks to his ruling system, the Song Dynasty would go on to rule China until 1279CE, seeing great developments in Chinese arts, trade, science, and agriculture.