Who Founded The Song Dynasty?-Taizu Of Song

Who was emperor Taizu, what dynasty did he rule in, and what was he known for?

Who Was Zhao Kuangyin?

Zhao Kuangyin

Emperor Taizu, known formerly as Zhao Kuangyin of the Grand Ancestorlived and ruled between 960 and 976CE. He was the founder of the Song or the Sung Dynasty that ruled China between 960 and 1279CE.

Taizu would then settle on a territory that was smaller than the rest, but one that was much more unified and also quite prosperous in ancient China. Emperor Taizu was born in 1927 and died in 976 at the age of 49.

Taizu started the process for the reunification of China, a project that was later on completed to a large extent by his successor and younger brother, the Taizong Emperor. Emperor Taizu was a military officer’s Zhao Hongyin second son, and at the time of Zhao Kuangyin’s birth, China was in a lot of chaos, with the famously great Tang Dynasty largely fragmented by the rebellions and coming to its end in the year 907. Over several decades after the fall of the Tang Dynasty, China would be referred to as the Five Dynasties, which ruled in the Wutai period. At the time, the successive regimes that were part Chinese rose to prominence before falling and leaving behind a rather devastated North China. The South, which was more prosperous, would be divided into several factions, among them an independent area that would, later on, be known as the Shiguo or the Ten Kingdoms.

Now, the boy’s ancestors from the three previous generations had won as military leaders, and Zhao Kuangyin’s father was sworn in and reached the highest command before dying in 956. Zhao Kuangyin took over the reign with great foresight and wisdom, as well as great influence from his mother. His mother’s wisdom was quite influential and was felt even after he died in 961.

Zhao Kuangyin’s Son

Song Taizu Zhao Kuangyin had a total of four sons, of which his eldest son Tengwang Zhao Dexiu and his third son Shuwang Zhao Delin died at a young age without leaving any offspring. The only two who grew to adulthood were his second son Yan Yi Wang Zhao Dezhuo and his fourth son Qin Wang Zhao Defang.

zhao kuangyin story

黄袍加身The Yellow Robe Ceremony

The Chenqiao Uprising, also known as the Chenqiao Yi Uprising, was the military uprising led by Zhao Kuangyin to replace the Later Zhou and establish the Song Dynasty. This event is also known as the Yellow Robe Ceremony.

On the seventh New Year’s Day of the seventh year of the Zhenghe era, when the Khitan invaded, the court ordered the commander-in-chief of the banned army and the palace front inspection, Zhao Kuangyin, to lead the troops to fight the enemy. On the third day of the first lunar month, Zhao Kuangyin led the army out of Kaifeng city and stationed the troops at Chenqiao Yi, 40 li northeast of Kaifeng. That night, the army mutinied and forcibly dressed Zhao Kuangyin in a yellow robe. Zhao Kuangyin became the emperor and established the Northern Song Dynasty.

During the process of replacing the Later Zhou with the Northern Song Dynasty, due to Zhao Kuangyin’s strict military discipline, he ordered the army to return to their barracks upon arriving in Kaifeng, and there was no chaos of burning, killing, and looting that had occurred in previous dynastic changes. Therefore, he gained the support of officials from the former Later Zhou.

At the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, some generals who had heavy troops outside, such as Murong Yanzhao and Han Lingkun, expressed their support for Song Taizu’s accession to the throne. Only the Zhaoyi Army Jiedushi Li Yun and the Huainan Jiedushi Li Chongjin, who were stationed in Luzhou (now Shangdang, Shanxi) and Yangzhou respectively, rebelled. Song Taizu personally led the army to suppress the rebellion and defeated Li Yun and Li Chongjin in less than half a year.

Their defeat made the smaller factions that were dissatisfied with Zhao Kuangyin’s replacement of the Later Zhou and were powerless to resist the central government also surrender. In this way, the Northern Song Dynasty basically stabilized the situation in the former Later Zhou ruling area.

杯酒释兵权:Release Military Power by Drinking Wine

The story took place in the second year of Jianlong (961 AD), when Zhao Kuangyin invited senior military generals such as Shi Shouxin and Gao Huaide of the Forbidden Army to a banquet. During the banquet, he used threats and enticement to persuade them, causing Shi Shouxin and others to request to be relieved of their military power and retire from their posts due to their old age and weak health. This incident, where he peacefully relieved the military power of the generals without a single soldier or casualty, came to be known as “the release of military power with a cup of wine”.

斧声烛影:The sound of an axe and the shadow of a candle

“Chopping sounds in the candlelight” or “Candlelight and Axe Sound” refers to an incident that occurred in the ninth year of Kaibao (976 AD) of the Song dynasty. Emperor Taizu (Zhao Kuangyin) fell seriously ill and summoned his fourth son, Zhao Defang, to the palace to discuss the succession. However, someone saw the shadow of the candlelight and heard the sound of the emperor tapping the ground with his walking stick and saying “good, let it be done” while Zhao Guangyi (the second son) was away from the seat, as if avoiding something. Later, Zhao Guangyi succeeded to the throne and was known as Emperor Taizong.

金柜之盟The Golden Urn Treaty

The Golden Urn Treaty, also known as the Golden Chest Treaty, refers to an event in which Emperor Taizu of the Song Dynasty (Zhao Kuangyin) was attending to his ailing mother, Empress Dowager Du. As she was on her deathbed, she summoned Zhao Pu to record her final wishes regarding the succession of the throne. She advised Emperor Taizu to pass the throne to his brother after his death. The recorded message was placed in a golden urn (also referred to as a chest), hence the name “Golden Urn Treaty.”

Be kind to the royal family of the Later Zhou Dynasty

After the rebellion, when Zhao Kuangyin became emperor, he did not execute the remaining members of the Chai family. Instead, he treated them kindly, granting them high positions and titles. He even conferred the title of king on the young Chai emperor, ensuring that his descendants would inherit the title for generations to come. Moreover, he issued strict orders to protect the Chai family’s descendants, forbidding punishment for their crimes and prohibiting the execution of officials and courtiers who criticized the government. These three rules were to be followed by all future emperors, without exception. Furthermore, Zhao Kuangyin issued an iron-clad guarantee of immunity from prosecution for the Chai family. It is clear that he treated the Chai family descendants with great kindness and benevolence. These words were engraved on a stele by Zhao Kuangyin and remained hidden until the fall of the Northern Song Dynasty.

zhao kuangyin importance/emperor taizu of song achievements

Emperor Taizu of Song, also known as Zhao Kuangyin, was the founder and first emperor of the Song Dynasty in China. He reigned from 960 to 976 and is widely regarded as one of the most accomplished rulers in Chinese history. Here are some of his most significant achievements:

  • Unification of China: Emperor Taizu successfully united China after decades of division and chaos during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. He defeated his rivals and established the Song Dynasty, which lasted for over three centuries.
  • Economic prosperity: Emperor Taizu implemented economic policies that led to a period of prosperity and growth in China. He encouraged agriculture and trade, reduced taxes, and improved the infrastructure by building roads and canals.
  • Civil service system: Emperor Taizu established a merit-based civil service system, in which officials were appointed based on their abilities rather than their social status or family connections. This system helped to ensure competent and loyal officials in the government.
  • Military reforms: Emperor Taizu reformed the military by instituting a system of conscription, which allowed him to maintain a large and well-trained army. He also encouraged the development of new weapons and tactics, such as the use of gunpowder weapons.
  • Cultural achievements: Emperor Taizu was a patron of the arts and literature, and his reign saw a flourishing of culture and scholarship. He supported Confucianism and Taoism, and his court was home to many renowned scholars and poets.
  • Diplomacy: Emperor Taizu was skilled in diplomacy and maintained good relations with neighboring countries, such as the Khitan Liao Dynasty to the north and the Vietnamese state of Dai Co Viet to the south.
  • Legal reforms: Emperor Taizu instituted legal reforms that promoted fairness and justice, such as the prohibition of torture in legal proceedings and the establishment of a more humane penal code.
  • Expansion of the Grand Canal: Emperor Taizu oversaw the expansion of the Grand Canal, which linked the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers and facilitated trade and transportation throughout China. This project was one of the greatest engineering achievements of his reign.
  • Promotion of education: Emperor Taizu supported education and established schools throughout the country. He also promoted the creation of encyclopedias and reference books
  • Religious tolerance: Emperor Taizu was known for his religious tolerance, and he allowed for the practice of Buddhism, Daoism, and other religions in China. He also supported the spread of Buddhism to neighboring countries, such as Vietnam.

In conclusion, Emperor Taizu of Song was a remarkable leader who left a lasting legacy in Chinese history. His achievements in unifying China, promoting economic prosperity, instituting a merit-based civil service system, and supporting culture and education, among other things, helped to lay the foundation for the greatness of the Song Dynasty. His reign was a period of peace and stability, and his contributions to Chinese society continue to be celebrated and admired today.

Zhao Kuangyin Accomplishments

Zhao Kuangyin or Emperor Taizu is known for rising above all other military rulers during China’s most turbulent times and running one of the most successful reigns for the Chinese people during the reign of the Song Dynasty.

  • Administration

One of the things that stands out from this ruler born in China’s Henan province is the fact that he was one of the finest archers and horsemen. And at the fine age of 20, commander Zhao was a commander who fought for the later Zhou Dynasty between 951 and 960CE. During the wars, he extended control over Southern China, and Zhao later turned out into one of the finest commanders of the Zhou Army. The Zhou’s ruler died at about the same time, and his son took up the title despite being a child. In 960CE, Zhou’s army endorsed Zhao as their new leader, dressing him in the yellow robes of the imperial leader while confidently proclaiming him as the ruler of all of China.

  • Change in leadership

After taking the reign as a Taizu, which means the Grand Progenitor, emperor Taizu’s first priority was ensuring that his position was the most powerful one in China, and to make this possible, Taizu went on to introduce the rotation system of government for the top generals. This system gave most of the former commanders minor positions in his new regime; while reducing the powers of the commanders who ran things in the 15 administrative regions that he ruled.

Taizu also made sure that there was no military leader that would be powerful enough to usurp him as emperor. And to check the powers of the army, some of the generals were encouraged to retire, and they would enjoy handsome pensions as incentives. Others would get gifts to symbolize their loyalty, while the rest would be replaced by civilian officials when they died or retired.

Emperor Taizu also introduced the centralized form of government with a court located in Kaifeng. The other changes he made included increasing the powers held by the civil service.

However, the created much less of a militaristic regime by focusing more on a more efficient administration system which was popular throughout much of the 10th Century CE.

  • Foreign Policy

Emperor Taizu also changed China’s foreign policy to a large extent. However, he had his hands full when he defended the northern borders from the Khitan Liao Dynasty between 907 and 1125CE and was in control of the Great Wall of China. They won the battle, and Taizu would then consolidate his grip over Southern and Central China.

  • Neo-Confucianism

Emperor Taizu’s rule also saw the rise in and changes of the political and also intellectual climate, as neo-Confucianism was introduced. The change saw questioning of the functions of the imperial authority, even as they sought to understand what the previous administration for the Tang Dynasty failed at in their final years, something that revived Confucian beliefs and gave birth to Neo-Confucianism. This ideal emphasizes self-improvement with a focus on rational metaphysical frameworks.

  • Arts

Emperor Taizu’s reign also saw a growth in the arts and cultural aspects of the Chinese people. Many books were printed, and a library was even established in Kaifeng with thousands of volumes of history and literature collected. Taizu also ordered large collections of high-quality and important silk scroll paintings, as well as calligraphy specimens and valuable art.

  • Reforms to the examination system

The emperor also created policies that would transform the examination system, resulting in the creation of a bureaucratic system that favored leadership through the abilities demonstrated rather than through favors or birth.

  • Economic growth

There also was a rather significant improvement in China’s economy during his reign, and this led to the biggest success levels of the country. The internal reforms, stability, and peace all facilitated a safe environment for the pioneering of some of the biggest economic techniques, as well as scientific advancements.

How Did Zhao Kuangyin Die

Taizu died in the year 976CE, and he was succeeded by his younger brother, emperor Taizong. Together, they ran a rather stable ruling system through his 4-decade rule of the Song dynasty, which ensured the best part to a unified China. Thanks to his ruling system, the Song Dynasty would go on to rule China until 1279CE, seeing great developments in Chinese arts, trade, science, and agriculture.

Zhao Kuangyin successor

Zhao Kuangyin’s successor as the emperor of the Song dynasty was his younger brother, Zhao Kuangyi, who took the imperial throne under the name Emperor Taizong. He ruled from 976 to 997 and continued many of the policies and reforms initiated by his brother. Under Emperor Taizong’s reign, the Song dynasty continued to expand and prosper, and he is often considered one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history.

Taizu of song VS Taizu of ming

Emperor Taizu of Song (Zhao Kuangyin) and Emperor Taizu of Ming (Zhu Yuanzhang) were two of the most prominent Chinese emperors in history. Both were founders of their respective dynasties and left significant legacies. Here are some key differences between the two emperors:

  1. Rise to power: Emperor Taizu of Song came to power through a military coup in 960 AD, overthrowing the Later Zhou dynasty. In contrast, Emperor Taizu of Ming rose to power by leading a rebellion against the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty in 1368 AD.
  2. Political achievements: Emperor Taizu of Song is known for unifying China after a long period of political instability, and for consolidating the power of the central government. He also implemented a number of reforms. Emperor Taizu of Ming, on the other hand, is known for restoring Chinese rule after almost a century of foreign Mongol rule. He also implemented a number of administrative reforms, such as the establishment of the Grand Secretariat, which was responsible for managing the emperor’s policies.
  3. Military achievements: Emperor Taizu of Song was a brilliant military strategist who led the Song dynasty to several important victories, including the conquest of the Northern Han dynasty. He also established a strong navy, which helped protect the southern coast of China from foreign invasions. Emperor Taizu of Ming was also a successful military leader who defeated the Mongols and established a strong army. He also oversaw the construction of the Great Wall of China to defend against future invasions.
  4. Cultural achievements: Emperor Taizu of Song is known for his patronage of the arts and literature, and for promoting Neo-Confucianism as the official state ideology. He also supported the creation of the world’s first paper money system. Emperor Taizu of Ming is known for his patronage of the arts and architecture.
  5. Legacy: Emperor Taizu of Song is remembered as one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history, whose reign marked a period of stability and prosperity. His dynasty lasted over 300 years, and his legacy had a profound impact on Chinese culture and society. Emperor Taizu of Ming is also remembered as a great emperor, whose reign marked the beginning of a new era of Chinese rule. His dynasty lasted almost 300 years, and his legacy also had a significant impact on Chinese culture and society.

In summary, while both Emperor Taizu of Song and Emperor Taizu of Ming were great rulers who left significant legacies, they had different backgrounds, accomplishments, and impacts on Chinese history. Emperor Taizu of Song was a military leader who unified China and consolidated central government power, while Emperor Taizu of Ming was a rebel who overthrew foreign rule and established a new era of Chinese rule.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top