What Is Su Embroidery?-Suzhou Silk Hand Embroidery Art(Su Xiu)

Su embroidery, which literally translates to “Suzhou embroidery,” is one of the four renowned embroidery styles in China. Renowned for its exquisite craftsmanship and profound cultural significance, it has become an integral part of traditional Chinese culture. Su embroidery, with its unique techniques and intricate patterns, has won the admiration and acclaim of people worldwide.

su embroidery meaning

Su embroidery is a collective term for embroidered products originating from the Suzhou region, constituting a traditional folk art in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. Originating from Suzhou, it is one of the four renowned embroidery styles in China and a nationally recognized intangible cultural heritage. The birthplace of Su embroidery is around Wuxian in Suzhou, and it has spread to various places such as Wuxi and Changzhou in Jiangsu Province. Embroidery is closely linked with sericulture and silk reeling, hence it is also known as silk embroidery. During the Qing Dynasty, “Su embroidery, Xiang embroidery, Yue embroidery, and Shu embroidery” were established as the four famous embroidery styles in China. The Qing Dynasty marked the heyday of Su embroidery, with various schools flourishing and skilled artisans competing. Su embroidery features a unique style characterized by exquisite designs, clever concepts, meticulous craftsmanship, lively needlework, and elegant colors, showcasing strong regional characteristics. The most renowned area for Su embroidery is Zhuhu Town (now renamed as a street in a high-tech zone under Suzhou Embroidery Research Institute). Zhuhu is the primary birthplace of Su embroidery, with eighty percent of Su embroidery products originating from this town.

Characteristics of Su Embroidery

Su embroidery, as one of China’s four renowned embroidery styles, has garnered love and acclaim worldwide for its unique craftsmanship and exquisite designs. Its distinct characteristics are evident in several aspects:

Exquisite Craftsmanship:

Su embroidery is known for its meticulous craftsmanship, where every stitch undergoes careful polishing, resulting in flawless masterpieces. The technique exhibits versatile needlework and fluid lines, impeccably managing every intricate detail, contributing to its high artistic and collectible value.

Rich Color Palette:

Proficient in utilizing diverse colors, Su embroidery creates vibrant and layered visuals resembling exquisite paintings. Each piece showcases vivid, well-defined colors, offering strong visual impact and artistic allure.

Unique Themes:

Su embroidery covers a wide range of subjects, from natural elements like landscapes, flora, and fauna to cultural themes like myths, legends, and historical stories. Its unique technique vividly portrays these themes, conveying people’s aspirations and pursuits for a beautiful life. The embroidery also emphasizes depth and three-dimensionality, rendering the pieces more lifelike.

Regional Characteristics:

As a folk craft originating from Suzhou, Su embroidery embodies distinct regional characteristics inspired by Suzhou’s gardens, water towns, literati, and more. Symbolic patterns and motifs such as dragons, phoenixes, peonies, among others, represent elements of traditional Chinese culture, enhancing its unique beauty and cultural significance.

Profound Cultural Significance:

Beyond a decorative art form, Su embroidery is an integral part of traditional Chinese culture, reflecting deep historical and cultural heritage and offering insights into nature and society. It symbolizes the culmination of women’s wisdom, showcasing their delicate yet resilient qualities, thereby possessing significant artistic and collectible value.

Continuous Innovation and Development:

Embracing societal progress and technological advancements, Su embroidery continuously evolves and innovates. Modern Su embroidery integrates traditional techniques with contemporary design principles and technological advancements, meeting modern aesthetic demands. It’s also expanding into international markets, showcasing the charm of Chinese traditional culture globally. This spirit of innovation ensures Su embroidery remains vibrant, competitive, and appealing to diverse audiences worldwide.

su embroidery history

Su embroidery, also known as Suzhou embroidery, is one of China’s exceptional traditional folk crafts, boasting a history of over 2,000 years. Its roots trace back to the Suzhou region, dating back to the Spring and Autumn Period of ancient China. Since then, Suzhou’s embroidery techniques have thrived, becoming an exclusive craft for the court nobility and extensively utilized in crafting court attire, tapestries, and screens.

Legend has it that Su embroidery originated from the granddaughter of Zhong Yong, named “Nv Hong,” who was the first to create embroidered clothing. During the ancient Zhou Dynasty, when Taibo and Zhong Yong arrived in the Suzhou region to establish the Wu Kingdom, locals practiced the custom of cutting hair and tattooing their bodies. As Zhong Yong became the ruler, he aimed to eradicate this practice and discussed it with the elders. However, their discussions were overheard by his granddaughter, Nv Hong, who was sewing at the time. Absorbed in her work, she pricked her finger accidentally, staining the fabric with a drop of her blood that formed into a small flower pattern. Inspired by this accident, Nv Hong embroidered a dragon design on the clothing, replacing the tattoo practice. In commemoration of the inventor of embroidery, women engaging in activities like weaving, sewing, and embroidery are still referred to as “Nv Hong” in folk tradition.

During the Qin and Han Dynasties, Suzhou’s embroidery art further flourished, becoming one of China’s earliest embroidery centers. The Su embroidery from that period was distinguished by its meticulousness, neatness, and vivid colors, receiving widespread admiration and praise.

In the Three Kingdoms period, the Wu Kingdom had already incorporated Su embroidery into clothing. Wu King Sun Quan instructed Prime Minister Zhao Da’s sister to embroider the “Map of the States” on square silk, depicting mountains, rivers, cities, and military formations, earning the phrase “embroidering myriad nations on a single cloth.” Jin Dynasty’s Prince Jia in “Records of the Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang” stated, “Sun Quan often lamented the lack of a talented painter to depict the landscapes and military formations of the Wei and Shu states. Zhao Da then offered his sister’s skills. Sun Quan tasked her with depicting the form of the Nine Provinces and Mountains. The lady said, ‘Colors in paintings are easily faded and perishable; I can embroider on silk to depict the forms of the Five Mountains, rivers, cities, and the array of troops.’ Upon completion, she presented it to the Wu ruler, and it was called ‘needle painting,’ admired by all.”

During the Tang and Song Dynasties, Su embroidery further developed and refined. Su embroidery pieces from this era carried high artistic value and cultural significance. Historical records from the Tang Dynasty note that Suzhou’s embroidery had reached a considerable level of mastery, and during the Song Dynasty, the term “Suzhou embroidery” became prevalent.

In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Su embroidery underwent further development, displaying even more exquisite craftsmanship. These pieces were hailed as “pearls of embroidery art” and became representatives of folk art. Not only did Su embroidery achieve peaks in craftsmanship during this period, but it also diversified in themes and content.

By the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Su embroidery had become a widespread household craft in the Suzhou region, creating a situation where “every family raised silkworms, every household embroidered.” The Jiangnan region became a center for silk textile handicrafts. In the realm of painting, the emergence of the Wu School led by Tang Yin (Tang Bohu) and Shen Zhou further propelled Su embroidery’s development. Artisans utilized paintings as templates for embroidery, resulting in vivid and eloquent needlework, earning the titles of “painting with needles” and “ingenious craftsmanship.”

In modern times, influenced by Western culture and technology, Su embroidery underwent significant changes. Elements of Western painting and embroidery techniques were incorporated into Su embroidery, leading to its new development. Simultaneously, amidst societal changes and shifts in market demands, Su embroidery faced challenges in its transmission.

To safeguard and pass on Su embroidery as an intangible cultural heritage, the Chinese government has implemented various measures. One such measure involves establishing specialized Su embroidery training schools in the Suzhou region, intensifying efforts in protecting and passing on this craft. Additionally, some grassroots organizations and artists actively promote the development and inheritance of Su embroidery.

Today, Su embroidery stands as one of China’s representatives of intangible cultural heritage, included in national and provincial protection lists. In contemporary society, Su embroidery not only enjoys widespread popularity domestically but also holds international acclaim. The developmental journey of Su embroidery fully showcases the charm and vitality of Chinese traditional craftsmanship, contributing significantly to the diversity of world cultural arts.

In summary, Su embroidery possesses a long-standing history and rich cultural significance, exerting profound influence on the development and inheritance of Chinese embroidery art.

types of su embroidery

Suzhou Embroidery

Suzhou Embroidery, specifically referred to as “Su Embroidery,” holds a crucial place in the history of Chinese arts and crafts. As a distributed craft centered around Suzhou and extending across the entire Jiangsu province, it is part of the “Four Great Embroideries of China” alongside Yue Embroidery, Xiang Embroidery, and Shu Embroidery. Suzhou Embroidery encompasses various aspects such as variety, shapes, patterns, sketches, needlework, stitching methods, colors, techniques, and framing. The application of needle techniques constitutes the language that shapes the diverse artistic images of embroidered pieces. Suzhou Embroidery’s technical features are summarized by eight characteristics: “flatness (smooth embroidery surface), neatness (even stitches), fineness (delicate threads), density (compact thread layout), harmony (color coordination), smoothness (smooth threads), brightness (bright colors), and uniformity (even stitching).” These characteristics distinguish it from embroidery produced in other regions of China. The types of Suzhou Embroidery can be divided into two major categories: utilitarian and ornamental pieces.

Nantong Realistic Embroidery

Nantong Realistic Embroidery, also known as “Shen Embroidery,” constitutes a significant branch of Suzhou Embroidery. In the late Qing Dynasty, embroidery master Shen Shou served as the chief instructor of the Department of Embroidery at the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce before being invited to oversee female workers’ training in Nantong, Jiangsu Province. Against the backdrop of “Western Learning spreading to the East,” Shen Shou incorporated Western art essence into traditional Suzhou Embroidery, establishing “Realistic Embroidery.” This technique creatively employs twisting and shading stitches to depict the texture of objects, harmonizing colors with a rich array of silk threads. The completed works display natural, soft, and vivid tones, exemplifying realistic achievements. Nantong Realistic Embroidery often draws inspiration from Western oil paintings, primarily focusing on portraits and landscapes. Proficient in various stitching methods, particularly in rendering facial features, it demonstrates exceptional mastery. For this reason, Nantong Realistic Embroidery is also termed “Artistic Embroidery,” lauded as “Shen Embroidery” in the Nantong region. It represents an innovative form within traditional embroidery, paving the way for the modern development of Chinese embroidery.

Wuxi Microscopic Embroidery

Wuxi, a significant birthplace of Suzhou Embroidery in Jiangsu Province, is renowned for “Microscopic Embroidery,” also known as “Jingwei Embroidery.” Historical records in Liu Xiang’s “Shuo Yuan” documented embroidery garments in Wuxi over 2,500 years ago during the Han Dynasty. In the mid-Ming Dynasty, Yu’s innovative “Piled Yarn Embroidery” was selected as a tribute for its exceptional craftsmanship. During the Qing Dynasty, Wuxi’s Microscopic Embroidery witnessed further development, introducing unique techniques such as “Boudoir Embroidery,” “Horsehair Stitching,” “Piled Yarn Embroidery,” “Sparse Filling Technique,” and “Random Stitching.” In the early 1980s, “Double-Sided Microscopic Embroidery” emerged as a globally recognized outstanding art form while upholding traditional practices. Wuxi Microscopic Embroidery boasts distinctive artistic features, often meticulously crafting intricate scenes and characters within small frames, presenting extraordinary wonders, such as “miniature figures, bean-sized horses, and tiny text.” Compared to regular double-sided embroidery, microscopic embroidery demands higher technical requirements and presents greater challenges in material usage, coloration, thread application, and stitching. It requires not only superior embroidery skills but also heightened artistic sensibility. Artisans intricately split a single thread into eighty parts to embroider exceedingly fine details, sometimes depicting facial features as small as a mung bean without using ink or brush strokes. Over its prolonged development, Wuxi Microscopic Embroidery has merged closely with traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy, emanating a unique artistic charm. Recognized as one of the earliest summarized forms of embroidery in theory, Microscopic Embroidery dates back to the Qing Dynasty, where the significant theoretical work “Embroidery Manual” expounded upon its techniques. It embodies the enduring clothing and daily decoration culture of the Chinese nation, cherished by literati, domestic and international art enthusiasts, and collectors alike.

Yangzhou Embroidery

Yangzhou Embroidery is a traditional craft prevalent in the Yangzhou region, belonging to the same category as Suzhou Embroidery. However, influenced by the cultural heritage of successive dynasties in Yangzhou and the artistic style of the “Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou” painting school, it follows the cultural connotations and ink-brush sentiments of Chinese painting. Consequently, two prominent characteristics of Yangzhou Embroidery are the “Simulated Landscape Embroidery” and “Ink-Wash Freehand Embroidery.”

The symbolism of Su embroidery

Suzhou Embroidery, as a traditional Chinese needlework craft, often embodies rich symbolic meanings in its creations.

It frequently symbolizes emotions like love, family bonds, and friendship. For instance, within Suzhou Embroidery pieces, the lotus flower often represents the purity and loyalty of love, while the peony signifies wealth and prosperity.

Suzhou Embroidery is also employed to symbolize auspiciousness and blessings. During festive occasions like the Spring Festival, individuals adorn their rooms with Suzhou Embroidery, seeking good fortune, happiness, and well-being for the upcoming year.

Additionally, Suzhou Embroidery serves as a symbol for longevity and health. Designs featuring symbols like longevity peaches and cranes convey wishes for a long and healthy life.

Moreover, Suzhou Embroidery is used to symbolize harvest and abundance. In ancient agricultural-centric China, a bountiful harvest was among the most desired aspirations. Consequently, Suzhou Embroidery often features motifs of abundant harvests of grains and thriving livestock, symbolizing prosperity and abundance.

Suzhou Embroidery Artistic Features

Suzhou Embroidery boasts a long history, with artifacts discovered from the Ruiguang Pagoda and Huqiu Pagoda in Suzhou during the Five Dynasties and Northern Song period. These artifacts, employing techniques like flat embroidery and split stitch, represent the earliest known physical examples of Suzhou Embroidery. Historical records indicate Suzhou’s embroidery prowess flourished since the Song Dynasty, with the craft maturing over time. In rural areas, sericulture and embroidery were widespread, while urban districts saw the emergence of lanes like Embroidery Lane, Rolling Embroidery Workshop, Brocade Workshop, and Embroidery Alley, showcasing Suzhou Embroidery’s prosperity. This era witnessed not only professional embroiderers but also affluent women engaging in this craft as a pastime, shaping the terms “folk embroidery,” “boudoir embroidery,” and “court embroidery.”

During the Qing Dynasty, Suzhou Embroidery reached unprecedented heights, earning Suzhou the title of the “Embroidery Market,” renowned worldwide. The diversity and widespread application of stitching techniques surpassed previous eras. Landscapes, pavilions, flora, fauna, and portraits were executed with remarkable skill. Meeting the significant demand from the imperial court, luxurious and splendid embroidery continued to flourish. Later, Suzhou Embroidery incorporated elements from Shanghai’s “Gu Embroidery” and Western paintings, creating a style characterized by strong contrasts of light and shade, imbuing a sense of depth.

Suzhou Embroidery’s unique style encompasses picturesque designs, clever concepts, meticulous craftsmanship, lively stitching techniques, and elegant colors, exuding a distinct regional essence. The embroidery technique epitomizes characteristics of being “flat, even, fine, dense, harmonious, luminous, smooth, and uniform.” “Flat” refers to the evenness of the embroidery surface, “even” indicates well-defined edges of the patterns, “fine” highlights delicate needlework and fine threads, while “dense” describes the compact arrangement of threads without visible needle traces. “Harmonious” denotes appropriate color settings, “luminous” refers to the vividness and brightness of colors, “smooth” illustrates the smoothness of silk threads, and “uniform” signifies the consistency in fine and even stitching. In terms of categories, Suzhou Embroidery primarily comprises three major types: zero-cut embroidery, costume embroidery, and hanging screens, balancing both decorative and practical aspects. Among these, the “double-sided embroidery” stands out for its exquisite craftsmanship.

The key artistic traits of Suzhou Embroidery lie in the scenic portrayal of landscapes depicting depth, the architectural rendition offering profound perspectives, lively character portrayals exuding vivid emotions, and floral designs displaying graceful and intimate characteristics. The lifelike artistic effects of Suzhou Embroidery, notably in its imitative and realistic styles, have garnered worldwide acclaim.

Classification of Suzhou Embroidery Stitches

Single-Sided Embroidery: Also known as Suzhou Single-Sided Embroidery or One-Sided Shine. Single-sided embroidery refers to creating a single-faced image on a Suzhou embroidery fabric, depicting flowers, figures, animals, portraits, etc. These are often framed with a traditional Chinese or Western frame and are hung as wall decorations. Known for their exquisite craftsmanship and relatively moderate pricing, these embroidered pieces are highly favored by the public, boasting a high market share. “Soft mounting” is one of the methods used, omitting the frame, glass, and backing, yet retaining elegance and portability.

Double-Sided Embroidery: Also known as Suzhou Double-Sided Embroidery or Both-Sided Shine. This classification includes Ordinary Double-Sided Embroidery, Double-Sided Varicolored Embroidery, and Double-Sided Three-Different Embroidery. Double-sided embroidery involves crafting images on both sides of the same base fabric during a single stitching process, with identical contours and exquisite designs for careful appreciation. In the realm of Suzhou Embroidery art, double-sided embroidery shines as a crowning jewel, epitomizing the craft’s skill. Today, it has evolved into “double-sided varicolored” and “three-different” embroidery, elevating the technique’s complexity. Crafting “double-sided varicolored” and “three-different” embroidery demands higher skill levels, requiring meticulous attention to both sides’ needlework, threads, ensuring no interference of colors or visible stitches, achieving clear differentiation between the two sides seamlessly.

Local Suzhou Embroidery: Originating from Suzhou in Jiangsu Province, adjacent to Shanghai. Not all embroidery sold by Suzhou merchants can be termed Suzhou Embroidery; authentic Suzhou Embroidery belongs to “local embroidery,” specifically crafted by locals. The embroidery work is characterized by its exquisite gloss, harmonious color transitions, split-thread embroidery, and moderate pricing.

Northern Suzhou Embroidery: Originating from Yancheng and Huaian areas in Jiangsu Province (Northern Suzhou), referred to as Northern Suzhou Embroidery or Jiangbei Embroidery by locals. It’s priced lower, using unsplit threads, often employing two-ply or one-and-a-half-ply stitching. Classic pieces include “Golden Avenue” and “Red Maple.”

Baoying Embroidery: Hailing from Baoying in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province (Central Suzhou), known for its rich colors and strong three-dimensional effects. It utilizes unsplit threads, usually two-ply, directly embroidered, offering better three-dimensional effects from a distance but might appear slightly rough up close. Notable for its landscape and chaotic stitch figures.

Embroidery Techniques in Suzhou Embroidery

I. Straight Stitching:

a. Straight Needle: Stitching the form entirely with vertical lines. The stitches rise and fall all along the edges in parallel lines, maintaining uniformity. Each unit is embroidered with a single color thread without any mixed colors. Longer stitches are tied off at places to prevent thread slackness, which evolved into the method of laying and carving the stitches.

b. Coiling Stitch: Uses short slanting lines that wrap around the form, creating a consistent direction from starting to ending points.

II. Looping Stitch:

Looping Stitch portrays curved forms and includes four types:

a. Cut Stitch: Also known as “piercing stitch,” the second stitch starts from the first stitch’s original eye, maintaining a tiny needle trace.

b. Joined Stitch: Allows elongated straight stitches but might cause the thread to loosen. It can elongate the thread but may expose the stitches.

c. Rolling Stitch: A curving needle method where the second stitch inserts slightly ahead of the first, tightening its thread, hiding the needle under the line.

d. Twisting Stitch: Uses a joining or rolling method to twist and embroider, maintaining a consistent but concealed needle trace.

III. Encasing Stitch:

Originating in the Tang Dynasty and flourishing in the Song Dynasty.

a. Single Encasement: Also called “flat encasement.” The method involves stitching a sequence with controlled gaps, aligning with earlier stitches to form a continuous pattern.

b. Double Encasement: Similar to the single encasement but deeper, with shorter sequences. The fourth and first sequences connect, followed by the third and first at three-quarters, and so forth.

c. Comb Encasement: Resembles single encasement but with more first-sequence stitches and fewer subsequent stitches, accumulating in the center like single encasement.

d. Slight Wool Encasement: An approach for stitching bird wool or plush, resembling double encasement but varying thread lengths.

e. Flexible Wool Encasement: For stitching animal fur, using two techniques together to create a more dynamic embroidered pattern.

IV. Alternate and Long Needle:

A technique using both long and short needles irregularly to create an effect with varying lengths, providing a unique texture to the embroidered figures.

V. Pulling Needle:

Also known as “snatching needle,” involves using short straight needles smoothly over the form in a batch-by-batch technique, evolving from the straight needle.

VI. Flat Stitch:

Using gold or silver threads instead of silk threads. Gold or silver threads are laid flat on the embroidery ground and filled using short silk stitches, forming various patterns.

VII. Thread Tacking:

A method using fine colored threads instead of gold threads. Known as “brown threads” or “root-bound threads,” mimicking the technique of flat stitching but with a wider range of colors and objects to embroider.

The difference between Su embroidery and Shu embroidery

The main differences between Su embroidery and Shu embroidery can be seen in several aspects:

Needlework: Su embroidery boasts over 130 different needlework techniques, including but not limited to shading stitches, flat stitches, rolling stitches, cutting stitches, blended stitches, grain stitches, and overlay stitches. Shu embroidery, on the other hand, has 12 major categories and over 130 techniques, commonly employing similar stitches such as shading, flat, rolling, cutting, blended, grain, and overlay stitches.

Techniques: Su embroidery typically emphasizes embroidering from the center towards the edges, whereas Shu embroidery also follows a center-out approach but often achieves a stronger three-dimensional effect in the resulting image.

Themes: Su embroidery frequently features landscapes of the Jiangnan region and portraits, while Shu embroidery often focuses on subjects like carp, hibiscus flowers, and pandas.

Representative Works: Su embroidery’s notable pieces include the Lotus Carp in the Great Hall of the People and Autumn on the Plateau. Shu embroidery’s representative works include scenes like the Sichuan Palace Dancers and the Nine Pandas.

In summary, Su and Shu embroideries differ in needlework techniques, execution methods, themes, and their renowned masterpieces.

The difference between Suzhou embroidery and Cantonese embroidery

The distinctions between Su embroidery and Cantonese embroidery are evident in several aspects:

Themes: Su embroidery features a wide range of themes, including landscapes with a sense of depth, architectural details, vivid human portraits, and intimate floral depictions. Conversely, Cantonese embroidery primarily draws from Western oil paintings, emphasizing vibrant colors and variations in light and shadow.

Needlework: Su embroidery displays precise and smooth needlework with clear and neat threadwork, resembling finely honed edges without requiring additional manual carving. Cantonese embroidery, however, exhibits flexible and adaptable needlework, characterized by rigorous techniques, luminous threadwork, even stitches, and vivid colors.

Color: Su embroidery tends towards more subdued and elegant colors, while Cantonese embroidery emphasizes vivid and contrasting color schemes.

Cultural Background: Su embroidery has a long history tracing back to the Three Kingdoms period, forming an integral part of traditional Chinese culture. Cantonese embroidery originated in the Tang Dynasty, introduced to Lingnan (southern China) by migrants from the central plains, showcasing a high level of craftsmanship in Guangdong’s embroidery during the Tang era.

In summary, Su embroidery and Cantonese embroidery differ in themes, needlework techniques, color usage, and cultural backgrounds.

The difference between Su embroidery and Xiang embroidery

Su embroidery and Hunan embroidery (Xiang embroidery) differ in several aspects:

History: Hunan embroidery boasts an ancient history dating back over 2,000 years to the Spring and Autumn Period, while Su embroidery has a history of over 2,000 years, with recorded mentions dating back to the Three Kingdoms period.

Craftsmanship: Hunan embroidery employs flexible needlework, creating lifelike, vivid, and strongly textured pieces. Su embroidery displays delicate needlework and exquisite craftsmanship, featuring vibrant colors, smooth lines, and strong three-dimensional effects.

Themes: Hunan embroidery draws themes from traditional Chinese culture, including landscapes, architecture, figures, and flora. Su embroidery extensively adopts themes from Jiangnan landscapes and human portraits, such as landscapes, pavilions, flora, and figures.

Style: Hunan embroidery emphasizes exaggeration and deformation, focusing on the artwork’s mood and artistic conception. Su embroidery, on the other hand, prioritizes delicacy and realism, emphasizing form and color in the artwork.

Region: Hunan embroidery primarily thrives in the central regions of Hunan province, encompassing various embroidery styles in the province. Su embroidery is predominantly found in the Suzhou region of Jiangsu province, representing Suzhou’s distinct embroidery styles.

In summary, Su embroidery and Hunan embroidery (Xiang embroidery) differ in history, craftsmanship, themes, style, and geographical regions.

Conclusion

As a vital component of traditional Chinese culture, Suzhou Embroidery not only boasts a rich historical heritage and cultural significance but also embodies an exquisite craftsmanship and artistic form. In today’s society, it is crucial to place greater emphasis on preserving and passing down this traditional artistry, revitalizing it with newfound vigor and vitality. Simultaneously, integrating elements of Suzhou Embroidery into modern design will infuse contemporary society with enhanced aesthetics and cultural depth.

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