The “Five Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn Period” refers to the five most powerful vassal states during the Spring and Autumn Period in ancient China. Although historical records may not provide entirely consistent accounts of these hegemons, overall, they were prominent states exerting significant influence during this era.
The “Five Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn Period” refers to the leaders of five vassal states during the Spring and Autumn Period in ancient China.
The term “Hegemon” refers to a political title, sounding similar to “Bo” and also known as “Zhou Bo” or “Fang Bo,” meaning the leaders of the vassal states. Their role was to convene with other vassal states and pay homage to the king, but in reality, it involved honoring the king to command the vassal states. During the Spring and Autumn Period, the power of the royal family declined, and the vassal states gained prominence. The Zhou royal authority weakened, becoming ineffective in controlling the various vassal states. In the competition for dominance, powerful vassal states engaged in intense struggles, forming alliances and launching military campaigns, leading to several vassal states sequentially attaining the title of “Hegemon.”
There are generally two perspectives on the Five Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn Period. One, as suggested by “Records of the Grand Historian,” includes Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Qin Mu Gong, Song Xiang Gong, and Chu Zhuang Wang. The other perspective, presented in “Xunzi,” consists of Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Chu Zhuang Wang, Wu Wang Helu, and Yue Wang Goujian.
The concept of the Five Hegemons is a historical phenomenon specific to a certain stage of the Spring and Autumn Period. The intense struggles for hegemony during this period laid the groundwork for the later unification wars of the Warring States period.
Different versionsFive Hegemons
The term “Five Hegemons” first appeared in the “Zuo Zhuan” (Commentary of Zuo) in the context of diligent vassals who supported and served the king. The quote from “Zuo Zhuan·Cheng Gong Er Nian” states: “The five lords hegemonized with diligence and care, fulfilling the king’s orders.”
Confucius, in his edited version of the “Spring and Autumn Annals,” identified the Five Hegemons as Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Qin Mu Gong, Chu Zhuang Wang, and Song Xiang Gong.
Mencius, during the Warring States period, continued this tradition, referring to them as Qi Huan, Jin Wen, Qin Mu, Song Xiang, and Chu Zhuang. In “Mencius·Gaozi,” he mentioned, “The Five Hegemons were the culprits against the Three Kings; the contemporary feudal lords are the culprits against the Five Hegemons.” He further stated, “The Five Hegemons, with Huan Gong being the most flourishing.”
The Eastern Han dynasty’s “Fengsu Tongyi” affirmed this interpretation, and the Tang dynasty’s “Shiji Suyin” followed suit.
Mozi, in “Mozi·Suoranyi,” mentioned Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Chu Zhuang Wang, Wu Wang Helu, and Yue Wang Goujian, stating that they “righteously governed and hence hegemonized over the feudal lords.”
Xunzi, in “Xunzi·Wang Ba,” discussed Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Chu Zhuang Wang, Wu Wang Helu, and Yue Wang Goujian, emphasizing that they “could hegemonize but could not become kings.”
Western Han’s “Sizi Jiang Delun” stated: Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Qin Mu Gong, Chu Zhuang Wang, and Yue Wang Goujian.
Eastern Han’s “Baihu Tong·Hao” recorded: “Some say the Five Hegemons refer to Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Qin Mu Gong, Chu Zhuang Wang, and Wu Wang Helu.”
Tang dynasty’s Yan Shigu in “Han Shu Zhu·Zhuhou Wang Biao” said: “Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Qin Mu Gong, Song Xiang Gong, and Wu Wang Fu Chai.”
Qing dynasty’s “Jiezuo Ting Ji Wai Bian” mentioned: “Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Jin Xiang Gong, Jin Jing Gong, and Jin Dao Gong.”
In 1934, the Republic of China’s “Ci Tong” stated: “Qi Huan Gong, Jin Wen Gong, Qin Mu Gong, Chu Zhuang Wang, and Zheng Zhuang Gong.”
Five Hegemons history
Duke Huan of Qi – Honoring the King and Repelling Barbarians
Duke Huan of Qi, the leader among the Five Hegemons during the Spring and Autumn period, reigned from 685 to 643 BCE. He was the 15th ruler of the Qi state and belonged to the Jiang clan, Lü family, with the personal name Xiaobai. A descendant of Jiang Taigong Lü Shang, Duke Huan was the third son of Duke Xi of Qi and had a mother from the Wei state.
Qi, located in the northern part of present-day Shandong, was economically prosperous, known for its abundant fish and salt production. Duke Huan appointed Guan Zhong as his prime minister and implemented reforms, establishing a system that integrated military and political power and unified the military and civilians. Qi gradually became stronger under his rule.
In 681 BCE, Duke Huan convened a meeting at Beixing (modern Juancheng, Shandong) with the vassal states of Song, Chen, Cai, and Zhu, becoming the first historical figure to act as the leader of a coalition of vassals. Faced with external threats from nomadic tribes, Duke Huan adopted Guan Zhong’s strategy of “honoring the king and repelling barbarians,” uniting other vassals. He campaigned against the northern Rong tribes and the southern Chu state, establishing a reputation among the vassal states.
Later, Duke Huan gathered the vassal states at Kuiqiu, achieving the “Nine-State Covenant” and receiving recognition from the royal court, formally acknowledging Qi’s hegemonic status. In his later years, Duke Huan’s governance declined. After Guan Zhong’s death, he appointed individuals like Yi Ya and Shu Diao, leading to internal strife and his eventual death due to starvation.
Duke Wen of Jin (697–628 BCE), named Chóng’ěr, was the 22nd ruler of the Jin state during the Spring and Autumn period. The son of Duke Xian of Jin, he spent 19 years in exile during the Li Ji Rebellion. With the support of Duke Mu of Qin, Duke Wen returned to Jin and ascended to the throne in 636 BCE.
Duke Wen implemented policies such as promoting commerce and agriculture, recognizing talents, rewarding achievements, and organizing the Three Armies and Six Ministries. He strengthened Jin’s power by forming alliances and conducting military campaigns. Notably, he successfully dealt with the rebellion led by Ji Wuzi, a relative of the Zhou royal family.
In 633 BCE, facing a crisis when the state of Song was besieged by Chu, Duke Wen sought the support of Qi and Qin, strategically retreating to City Pu. The subsequent Battle of City Pu showcased Duke Wen’s military prowess, defeating the Chu forces. After the victory, Duke Wen convened the Covenant at Ji, where he was recognized as the “Marquis of Lords” by King Xiang of Zhou, formalizing his status as the second hegemon of the Spring and Autumn period.
Duke Mu of Qin – Dominating the Western Rong
Duke Mu of Qin (682–621 BCE), also known as Duke Miao of Qin, belonged to the Ying clan, Zhao family, and was the younger brother of Duke Xuan and Duke Cheng of Qin. He is widely recognized as one of the Five Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn period.
After ascending to the throne, Duke Mu appointed Bai Li Xi, Jian Shu, and Gong Sun Zhi as key ministers. He supported Jin Hui Gong in ascending the throne of Jin, offering aid to Jin during times of distress. However, when Jin Hui Gong, upon becoming king, failed to fulfill the promised gift of five cities to Qin, Duke Mu led an expedition, captured Jin Hui Gong, and obtained the five cities, expanding Qin’s territory west of the Yellow River (known as the Battle of Han).
Jin Hui Gong’s son, Crown Prince Yu (Jin Huai Gong), later came to Qin as a hostage as agreed. In order to maintain control over Jin, Duke Mu married his daughter Huai Yun to Crown Prince Yu. However, when Crown Prince Yu returned to Jin and ascended the throne, he turned against Qin. Duke Mu then married Huai Yun to Ji Chong’er and assisted Chong’er in reclaiming the throne, a historical event known as the “Huai Yun Remarriage.”
After successfully establishing the Qin-Jin alliance, Duke Mu sought to expand into the Central Plains to achieve hegemony. He sent generals to raid Zheng and conquered Huaguo, creating unrest in the Central Plains. To counteract Qin’s eastern expansion, Jin Xian Gong ambushed Qin forces at Mount Yao, leading to the Battle of Yao. Although Qin later avenged the defeat, the dominance of the powerful Jin state hindered further eastward expansion.
Duke Mu then turned westward, utilizing the advice of You Yu, who had defected from Jin to the barbarian tribes. Qin, following You Yu’s plan, gradually eliminated 12 (or some sources say 20) western Rong states established by the barbarians. Duke Mu’s victories over the Rong earned him recognition from King Zhou, who praised him and bestowed golden drums. Duke Mu was appointed as the marquis of western vassals, laying the foundation for Qin’s future unification of China.
Duke Mu passed away in 621 BCE, posthumously honored as Duke Mu. He was buried in Yong (modern Fengxiang, southeast of Baoji, Shaanxi), accompanied by 177 sacrificial victims.
King Zhuang of Chu – Aspiring to Conquer the Central Plains
King Zhuang of Chu (reigned from 613 to 591 BCE), also known as King Kang of Jing (as inscribed on unearthed Chu bamboo slips), belonged to the Mi clan, Xiong family. He was the son of King Mu of Chu, ruling the Chu state during the Spring and Autumn period. King Zhuang is widely recognized as one of the Five Hegemons.
While Qi dominated, Chu faced restrictions from expanding northward. However, when Qi declined, Chu turned eastward, annexing smaller states and becoming a powerful state. After Qi’s decline, Chu began expanding northward to contend with Jin for hegemony. In 598 BCE, King Zhuang led Chu forces to victory against Jin at Bi (modern Henan Zhengzhou), gaining support from other states.
With the support of various states, King Zhuang started becoming a dominant force in the Central Plains. During the competition with Jin for hegemony, King Zhuang led Chu forces northward, using the opportunity to defeat the Rong tribes near Luhun (northeast of Song County, Henan) and annexing Huaguo, bringing Chu’s main forces to the southern outskirts of Luoyang, the Eastern Zhou capital. Upon hearing the news, King Ding of Zhou, feeling uneasy, sent Wang Sun Man to console King Zhuang. During the meeting, King Zhuang, in a moment of inspiration, asked Wang Sun Man, “How large and heavy is the Ding of the Zhou king?” (implying his ambition to compete with the Zhou royal authority), marking the historical event known as “Aspiring to Conquer the Central Plains.” This act challenged the authority of the Zhou royal family and showcased King Zhuang’s ambitious spirit.
King Zhuang once said, “Cultivating culture stops war; military power is to prevent violence, control soldiers, protect the state, and achieve great deeds. It ensures peace, prosperity, and harmony for the people.” (from Zuo Zhuan, 12th year of Duke Xuan). He played a crucial role in spreading Chinese culture and traditions to Chu, which was previously considered outside of the Huaxia civilization. The achievements of King Zhuang in strengthening Chu and contributing to the spread of Chinese culture had a profound impact on later generations.
In 591 BCE, King Zhuang passed away, posthumously honored as King Zhuang. His high evaluation and several idioms related to him, such as “shining in one stroke,” had a lasting influence on later generations.
Duke Xiang of Song – The Grand Principles of the Spring and Autumn Period
Duke Xiang of Song (unknown – 637 BCE) was the ruler of the state of Song during the Spring and Autumn period. His personal name was Zifu, and he reigned from 650 to 637 BCE. Duke Xiang was the son of Duke Huan of Song and the father of Duke Cheng of Song.
After the death of Duke Huan of Qi, internal turmoil erupted in Qi. Duke Xiang of Song led forces from Wei, Cao, Zhu, and other states to intervene in Qi, supporting the enthronement of Duke Xiao of Qi. This action brought him great renown, and Duke Xiang’s reputation rose accordingly.
Duke Xiang harbored ambitions of inheriting the hegemony left by Duke Huan of Qi. He engaged in a power struggle with the state of Chu and was temporarily captured by Chu forces. In 638 BCE, Duke Xiang launched a campaign against the state of Zheng, clashing with Chu forces that came to the aid of Zheng at the Hong River. Despite the strength of Chu’s military, Duke Xiang adhered to the principles of “benevolence and righteousness,” waiting for Chu forces to cross the river and form their battle lines before engaging in combat. Unfortunately, this strategy led to a significant defeat, and Duke Xiang was wounded, succumbing to his injuries the following year.
Duke Zhuang of Zheng – Maintaining Stability in All Directions
Duke Zhuang of Zheng (757–701 BCE), known as Wusheng, was a prominent political figure during the Spring and Autumn period. He was the third ruler of the state of Zheng, reigning from 743 to 701 BCE.
Upon ascending the throne in 743 BCE, Duke Zhuang consolidated his power by suppressing the rebellion led by Gongshu Duan. Subsequently, he formed an alliance with the states of Qi and Lu, launching a feigned attack on Song. Due to Zheng’s growing strength, tensions arose with the Zhou royal family, leading to a deterioration of relations.
In the Battle of Xuguo, Zheng defeated a coalition army consisting of forces from Zhou, Guo, Wei, Cai, and Chen. In 719 BCE, Duke Zhuang achieved another victory against a coalition of forces from Song, Chen, Cai, Wei, and Lu. These successes propelled Zheng to unprecedented strength, earning Duke Zhuang the title of “Little Hegemon of the Spring and Autumn period.” Even the powerful state of Qi joined Zheng in campaigns to the east and west, solidifying Duke Zhuang’s reputation.
Duke Zhuang of Zheng passed away in 701 BCE, and he was praised by Mao Zedong as a formidable figure.
Duke Xiang of Jin – Governing with Wisdom
Duke Xiang of Jin (unknown – 621 BCE) was the son of Duke Wen of Jin and ruled Jin during the Spring and Autumn period. In 628 BCE, following the death of Duke Wen, Duke Xiang ascended to the throne. In 627 BCE, he achieved a significant victory against the Qin army at Mount Yao, capturing three Qin generals: Bai Yibing, Meng Mingshi, and Xi Qishu, in the Battle of Xianyu. Qin, seeking revenge, faced another defeat in the Battle of Pengya the following year.
During Duke Xiang’s reign, he promoted capable individuals and implemented benevolent governance, maintaining the hegemonic position of Jin. In 622 BCE, prominent Jin ministers such as Zhao Shuai, Hu Yan, and Luan Zhi passed away. Duke Xiang passed away in 621 BCE, and Zhao Dun served as regent.
Duke Jing of Jin – Continuing Hegemony in the Central Plains
Duke Jing of Jin, also known as Duke Ju, ruled the state of Jin during the Spring and Autumn period from 599 to 582 BCE. His father was Duke Cheng of Jin, and upon Duke Cheng’s death in 599 BCE, Duke Jing succeeded to the throne.
In the Battle of Yingbei in 599 BCE, Jin’s Shi Hui led the army to defeat King Zhuang of Chu. In 597 BCE, Jin forces invaded the heartland of Chu, ending Chu’s hegemony. Duke Jing also sent troops to attack the alliance of Cai and Chu, resulting in the Battle of Shen, further solidifying Jin’s dominance.
Duke Jing of Jin was a wise ruler, achieving success in battles such as the Battle of Bi against Chu. However, his establishment of the Six Ministers system laid the groundwork for future internal conflicts in Jin.
In 582 BCE, Duke Jing of Jin passed away, and his high achievements earned him the title of one of the Five Hegemons.
Duke Dao of Jin – Sole Dominance in the Central Plains
Duke Dao of Jin (586–558 BCE), posthumously known as Duke Dao, was a member of the Ji family. He was the legitimate heir of the Jin dynasty, the great-grandson of Duke Huan of Jin, the grandson of Huan Shu Jie, and the second son of Duke Wen of Jin’s son, Hui Bo Tan. Known as Duke Dao, he was characterized by his early intelligence and wisdom. While residing in Luo, he served as a companion to Duke Xian of Shan, showcasing talents in governance and military strategy. At the age of fourteen, Duke Dao assumed control of Jin, appointing Han and Luan as pillars, and Qi and Yang as strategists. He esteemed ministers like Han Jue, Zhi Ying, Wei Jiang, and Zhao Wu, implementing strict military discipline while caring for the welfare of the people. Under his rule, Jin achieved internal harmony, experienced national prosperity, gained the support of the Rong and Di tribes, and extended its influence across the Central Plains. Historical records of Jin’s alliances during this period described the harmony among states as comparable to “musical notes in harmony,” signifying widespread unity in the Huaxia region. Duke Dao, defying the imperial decree, assumed imperial honors and, in the span of ten years, resolved external challenges, achieving this remarkable feat at the age of 26. Under his leadership, Jin reached its zenith, becoming an absolute hegemon in the realm.
Duke Ding of Jin – Huang Chi as Ruler
Duke Ding of Jin (?–475 BCE), named Wu, was the son of Duke Qing of Jin and reigned for 37 years (511–475 BCE). Shortly after his ascension, Duke Ding faced a plot by Xun Yin to eliminate the Zhao clan. In the twelfth year of his reign, a prime minister of Zhao, Dong An, constructed the ancient city of Jin, known as the first city in Taiyuan. In the fifteenth year, Zhao Jianzi, appointed as the chief minister of Jin, imprisoned and later killed Zhao Wu, a member of the Zhao clan. In the nineteenth year, Zhao Yang led an army against reinforcements from the Fan and Zhongxing clans, declaring a pledge that included territorial rewards and eased restrictions for military and commoners. Jin achieved victory, solidifying its position. In the thirtieth year, in July, at the Huang Chi assembly, a dispute arose between King Fuchai of Wu and Duke Ding of Jin over seniority. Despite King Fuchai claiming seniority due to Zhou lineage, Duke Ding asserted his seniority based on the Ji surname, causing Zhao Yang to grow angry and contemplate an invasion of Wu. Consequently, the Huang Chi assembly named Duke Ding as the leader, with King Fuchai of Wu following.
King Fuchai of Wu – Striving for Hegemony in the Central Plains
King Fuchai of Wu (approximately 528–473 BCE), also known as Fuchai, was the son of King Helü of Wu and the last ruler of the state of Wu during the Spring and Autumn period. He reigned from 495 to 473 BCE. Fuchai, driven by the desire to avenge his father’s defeat to King Goujian of Yue, focused on strengthening Wu and achieved significant success. In 494 BCE, Fuchai defeated King Goujian at Mount Fu Jiao (in present-day Suzhou, Jiangsu), forcing Goujian to submit. He also triumphed over the Qi army. In 482 BCE, at the Huang Chi assembly, Fuchai secured hegemonic power by outmaneuvering Jin and other states. Despite these successes, Fuchai’s decision to leave his heir and the elderly to defend the state allowed Goujian to invade and defeat Wu in 473 BCE. The capital city of Gusu (modern Suzhou) fell, leading to the demise of Wu, and Fuchai committed suicide.
King Goujian of Yue – Dominating the Southeast as a Hegemon
King Goujian of Yue (approximately 520–465 BCE), originally named Ji Jiu Qian (Goujian), was a descendant of Emperor Yu of the Xia Dynasty. He was the son of King Yunchang of Yue and became the ruler of the state of Yue during the late Spring and Autumn period. In 496 BCE, Wu King Fuchai attacked Yue and besieged King Goujian in Kuaiji (modern Shaoxing, Zhejiang). However, Goujian persevered, and after several decades of meticulous preparation, he reversed Yue’s weakness, transforming it into strength. In 482 BCE, at the Huang Chi assembly, Goujian successfully secured hegemonic power, prevailing over Jin and other states. After overcoming the humiliation inflicted by Wu, Goujian expanded northward, forming an alliance with states like Qi and Jin at Xu (in present-day Teng County, Shandong). He was praised as a hegemonic king, and the states east of the Jiang and Huai Rivers acknowledged his leadership. In later years, Goujian relinquished territories to Chu, restored the land taken by Wu from Song, and returned territories to Lu, Sui, and the eastern areas up to Bai Li. During this time, Yue’s military prowess and influence were acknowledged by neighboring states, and Goujian was hailed as the hegemon king who achieved unprecedented success.
In summary, the Five Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn period were the five most powerful states during that time. They exerted significant influence across political, economic, and cultural domains, achieving remarkable accomplishments. Their dominance in the competition among feudal states marked a period of notable advantage. While historical records may vary in detailing the exploits of these hegemons, they undeniably form an integral and essential part of Chinese history. The wisdom and courage displayed by these states during their pursuit of hegemony offer valuable lessons and experiences for posterity.
“Zuo Zhuan, Cheng Gong Eighth Year”: “Among the scholars, two or three are like losing their consorts, not to mention hegemons? The hegemon should uphold virtue, and with the support of two or three, how can he long have the allegiance of the feudal lords?”
Gu Yanwu’s “Ri Zhi Lu”: “The meaning of the Spring and Autumn is to respect the heavenly king, repel the barbarians, and eliminate rebellious ministers and treacherous sons—all of which are in accordance with nature and the heavenly way.”
Niu Xianzhong’s “History and Strategy: A New Discussion on Military History of China and the West”: During most of the Spring and Autumn period, the so-called hegemony was maintained mainly by the state of Jin. The existence of Jin, a superpower (“there is no one stronger than the state of Jin,” as King Hui of Liang said), prevented the northern invasion of barbarians, halted the southern advance of Chu, and obstructed the eastern expansion of Qin (during that era, Qin was often an ally of Jin and could only be satisfied with “achieving hegemony over the western barbarians”).
Qing Quanzuwang’s “Jieqi Tingji Wai Bian”: “Therefore, regarding the hegemonic goals, who would fulfill them? It is said that Qi alone, with Jin contributing four. The hegemony of Jin, from Duke Wen to Duke Zhaoqing, a total of ten rulers, actually lasted for only four generations. Duke Wen, in his old age, obtained the state, urgently sought hegemony, and when it was achieved, he laid siege to Zheng, felt deceived by Qin in the Battle of Bi, and deeply regretted these events. Fortunately, Duke Xiang’s true and capable son was enough to continue the hegemony. From Duke Ling onwards, there was a decline, with Duke Cheng achieving hegemony, suffering a setback in the Battle of Xi, regaining strength during Duke Jing’s reign, declining again during Duke Li’s reign, and experiencing a revival under Duke Dao. In summary, Wen, Xiang, Jing, Dao—their achievements are undeniable.”
Sima Zhen’s “Records of the Grand Historian, Yearly Chronicle of the Twelve Feudal Lords, Index”: “To punish and attack as the leader of the alliance, the governance is carried out by the Five Lords. [Index: Lord pronounced as Hegemon.] The Five Hegemons are Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Wen of Jin, Duke Mu of Qin, Duke Xiang of Song, and King Zhuang of Chu.”
“Xunzi, Kingly Rule”: “Therefore, Qi Huan, Jin Wen, Chu Zhuang, Wu Houlu, Yue Goujian—these are all rulers of peripheral and uncultured states, yet they move the world and are almost without rivals in China. There is no other reason for this except trust. This is what is called establishing trust and achieving hegemony.”
“New Chunqiu”: “Duke Dao of Jin harmonized the barbarians, established internal peace, and conquered external enemies. He effectively controlled the situation with Wu and restrained Chu, engaged in far-reaching diplomacy and campaigns. When the alliance against Wei abandoned Chen, excelling in the covenant of Duke Huan of Qi, Wu submitted to Zheng, comparable to Duke Wen’s victory over Chu. In the auspicious years granted by heaven, achievements were expected to double. The zenith of hegemony, with the Central Plains all submitting, barbarians showing respect, Qi fearing Lu and Wei; Qin halted at Mount Yao; Chu trembling before Jin and Wu. Duke Dao, elevated in the red capital, strategically planned, managed a thousand chariots, governed a nation of ten thousand chariots, controlled the royal capital from afar, expanded throughout the Central Plains, ruled China and commanded the feudal lords, accumulated soldiers and horses to suppress internal opposition, occupied the Huo Fortress to contend for the world. Jin’s hegemony was at its peak during Duke Dao’s reign. However, he passed away before reaching thirty, a great pity!”
Military Historical Figures: Duke Xiang of Song and Sun Wu Zi, Sina Military [Accessed January 11, 2017]
“Zuo Zhuan, Year Two of Duke Wen”: In the spring of the second year, Qin Mengmingshi led the army to attack Jin in retaliation. Jin Hou personally led the troops. Xian Qie occupied the central position, assisted by Zhao Shuai. Wang Guan had no land to command the troops and Hu Ju resided on the right. On the day of Jiazi, they fought with the Qin army at Pengya. The Qin army suffered a defeat. Jin people called it the “Offering and Bestowing Campaign” of Qin.
My name is Yelang, I love my country. I love Chinese history, Chinese cultureandChinese food, I want to share my story to friends all over the world. Truly, without any political bias, let you know my motherland. For this reason, I have traveled all over China's 20 + provinces and visited more than 100 + cities. At the same time, I read a lot of books and articles, and let you know through the website of sonofchina. At the same time, I hope to get to know friends all over the world and know different countries in the world through sonofchina.So, if you have any questions, please let me know.